The short answer is that the Jewish religion didn't have sacraments, it had sacrifices and laws and blessings and festivals.
The longer answer is specific to Augustine, who was considering each OT law as a type of Christ, and in that way a sacrament. The Jews counted 613 laws, and of course sacrifices and blessings and festivals count on top of that, so there were literally hundreds.
The Catholic Church instituted its seven sacraments independently of the Jewish religion. There is no theology of one-for-one replacement. That said, we can take each of the seven and find some antecedent in Judaism:
Baptism: Jews did practice baptism as a rite of repentance in NT times, but their chief rite of passage into the community of faith was circumcision.
Confirmation: Jews now have Bar Mitzvah, but we have no evidence for this in NT times. Judaism always had many laws that applied only to adults, not children, though. By necessity there would have always been some way of recognizing when a child became subject to the law (and therefore a fully functioning member of the community), such as a 13th birthday.
Penance: Jews had sacrifices for sin, and a day of atonement. They also had elaborate rituals for restoring "cleanness" to themselves on various occasions and to various articles which may incur uncleanness.
Eucharist: Jews had communion sacrifices. An animal was sacrificed in the temple, certain fatty parts were burned on the altar and the rest was eaten by the family.
Marriage: Jewish marriages were (most likely) conducted and blessed by the rabbis (synagogue leaders) in NT times, but it was based upon a covenant or contract between the husband and wife, with the father of the bride negotiating the best interests of the bride.
Holy Orders: Jews had various processes for the ordination and induction of their priests and other leaders. You can read about these rites in Leviticus.
Sacrament of the Sick:
The Jewish religion did not have prayers for the sick and dying (so far as I know) but they did have a procedure for returning lepers to the community after they were healed. The former leper would be inspected by the temple priests and be pronounced clean.
From the Catholic Encyclopedia:
(c) Sacraments of the Mosaic Law. As the time for Christ's coming drew
nearer, in order that the Israelites might be better instructed God
spoke to Moses, revealing to him in detail the sacred signs and
ceremonies by which they were to manifest more explicitly their faith
in the future Redeemer. Those signs and ceremonies were the sacraments
of the Mosaic Law, "which are compared to the sacraments which were
before the law as something determined to something undetermined,
because before the law it had not been determined what signs men
should use" (Summa Theologiæ III:61:3, ad 2). With the Angelic Doctor
(I-II:102:5) theologians usually divide the sacraments of this period
into three classes:
The ceremonies by which men were made and signed as worshippers or
ministers of God. Thus we have (a) circumcision, instituted in the
time of Abraham (Genesis 17), renewed in the time of Moses (Leviticus
12:3) for all people; and (b) the sacred rites by which the Levitical
priests were consecrated.
The ceremonies which consisted in the use of things pertaining to the
service of God, i.e. (a) the paschal lamb for all the people, and (b)
the loaves of proposition for the ministers.
The ceremonies of purification from legal contamination, i.e. (a) for
the people, various expiations, (b) for the priests, the washing of
hands and feet, the shaving of the head, etc. St. Augustine says the
sacraments of the Old Law were abolished because they had been
fulfilled (cf. Matthew 5:17), and others have been instituted which
are more efficacious, more useful, easier to administer and to
receive, fewer in number ("virtute majora, utilitate meliora, actu
faciliora, numero pauciora", Reply to Faustus XIX.13). The Council of
Trent condemns those who say that there is no difference except in the
outward rite between the sacraments of the Old Law and those of the
New Law (Sess. VII, can. ii). The Decree for the Armenians, published
by order of the Council of Florence, says that the sacraments of the
Old Law did not confer grace, but only prefigured the grace which was
to be given by the Passion of Christ. This means that they did not
give grace themselves (i.e. ex opere operato) but only by reason of
the faith in Christ which they represented — "ex fide significata, non
ex circumcisione significante" (Summa Theologiæ I-II:102:5)