Yes, Baptists have a very different view of authority than, say, Catholics. Baptists believe that it is the right and responsibility of every Christian to study the scripture for himself, rather than accepting some set of beliefs promulgated by an authority.
Baptists point to Scripture passages such as:
Acts 17:11 "These [the people of Berea] were more fair-minded than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all readiness, and searched the Scriptures daily to find out whether these things were so." People are praised for studying the scriptures for themselves to see what is true and what is not.
1 Peter 2:7,9 "Therefore, to you who believe ... you are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, a holy nation," Peter is addressing all believers, and calls them "a royal priesthood". From this Baptists get the doctrine of "the priesthood of the believer": we are all priests, not just a select few.
Romans 14:3-6,10 "Let not him who eats despise him who does not eat, and let not him who does not eat judge him who eats; for God has received him. Who are you to judge another’s servant? To his own master he stands or falls. Indeed, he will be made to stand, for God is able to make him stand. One person esteems one day above another; another esteems every day alike. Let each be fully convinced in his own mind. He who observes the day, observes it to the Lord; and he who does not observe the day, to the Lord he does not observe it. He who eats, eats to the Lord, for he gives God thanks; and he who does not eat, to the Lord he does not eat, and gives God thanks. ... But why do you judge your brother? Or why do you show contempt for your brother? For we shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ." Paul discusses some debates then going on in the church, like whether it was appropriate to eat meat that had been sacrificed to idols, and whether Christians should celebrate the Sabbath. And he concludes: each Christian must decide such questions for himself, and not judge those who came to different conclusions.
In theory, at least, if in a meeting of Catholics someone said, "I disagree with the Pope about this", other Catholics would tell him that he must be wrong: the pope's statements on doctrine are infallible and all Catholics must accept them. If in a meeting of Baptists someone said, "I disagree with the president of our denomination about this", other Baptists would say, "Oh? What verses can you point to to defend your position?"
Of course like any general principle, there are limits to how far Baptists take this. We consider some beliefs to be fundamental, and if you don't accept those, we don't deny that it is your right to believe that way, but we do deny that you have any reasonable basis to call yourself a "Baptist". Like if you deny that there is a God, or that Jesus died for our sins, or that there are such places as Heaven and Hell. (Just like, Libertarians say they believe in free speech. You can say whatever you want. But if you say that you don't believe in free speech, they won't agree to call you a Libertarian. Etc.)