Your question reveals one of the most misunderstood issue in the Bible, as the church sees itself as the successor of Israel.
For the most part, Evangelical Christendom believes in a pre-tribulation rapture (see Left Behind series) originating from Nelson John Darby of the Plymouth brethren, who are also responsible for Dispensationalism.
In this idea, the time of the church is now, then will be raptured and the Jews will go through the tribulation till the end and will await Messiah to return with the hosts of believers.
All these concepts and ideas are unbiblical and are based solely on the traditions of man.
Starting from Jeremiah 31:31-34 the promise of the New Covenant was exclusively given to the House of Israel and the House of Judah - not to any gentile. When Jesus came, he repeatedly said. "I just came to save the lost sheep of the house of Israel."
The reason for that is, that Israel is in the succession of the firstborn since Adam. Being Noah the 10th and Abraham the 20th. The person Israel (the 22d firstborn since creation) splits the firstborn heritage, responsibilities and s on into two - Ephraim and Judah.
Thus we have 24 elders of mankind, who hold the key of promises of redemption of mankind. A very good chance is, that these are the 24 elders from revelation.
Since Ephraim and Judah (Genesis 48) Israel is divided in two kingdoms - The House Israel under Ephraim and the House of Judah under Judah.
King David was the first king of Israel, who brought all tribes and both kingdoms together and it says literally, that David was sitting on the throne of Jahweh.
Meaning Kind David was the first human king over all Israel (the firstborn), who was sitting on the throne of God, given to Adam to rule the earth and handed down from firstborn to firstborn, always from father to son.
This firstborn factor is the reason why God took Israel out of all the nations to himself and made an everlasting covenant with them, so that his eternal purpose may known to man.
At no point in history God broke his covenant or decided to give it away to Non-Israelites. The offer was always to come and join, not to take over and invent something new.
As the organized church in its rotten state is a representation of God in this world, so is the State Israel with all her sins.
Like the organized church, the State of Israel is a "shell" so to speak, where the "right" people are living - the Household of God. One are from the faith, the other from the law.
When we want to understand the question of the disciples, short before Jesus rose to heaven, we need to start to take the Biblical account literal first.
So when the disciples ask "Is now the time, when you restore the Kingdom to Israel?" and Jesus said basically "not now, but later" than we should expect teh Kingdom being restored to Israel.
While the modern State is not the last fulfillment of biblical prophecies, we should listen to Jesus, when he asks us to read the signs of the time. We are in that time, Jesus talks in Matthew 24 about.
After the destruction of Temple in Jerusalem in 70 it took 1903 years, until Judah received back the place King David bought 3000 years ago /the place where the Temple Mount is)
Judah came back from Babylon, after 2500 years to their land.
To that extent the modern State of Israel is a miracle and proof that Jahweh really exists and that the stories of old are not stories, but powerful truth.
And in the spiritual, the modern enemies of Israel are the enemy of the church too.
When I read my Bible, I see God standing on the side of Israel - no matter what.
So when you want to be on God's side, you can't avoid being Israel's side.
And if you are against Israel, you are against the God of Israel.