"Augustine says . . .
(Enchiridion lxxxiii) that 'he who dies in a state of obstinacy is
guilty of the sin against the Holy Ghost,' and (De Verb. Dom., Serm.
lxxi) that 'impenitence is a sin against the Holy Ghost,' and (De
Serm. Dom. in Monte xxii), that 'to resist fraternal goodness with the
brands of envy is to sin against the Holy Ghost,' and in his book De
unico Baptismo (De Bap. contra Donat. vi, 35) he says that 'a man who
spurns the truth, is either envious of his brethren to whom the truth
is revealed, or ungrateful to God, by Whose inspiration the Church is
taught,' and therefore, seemingly, sins against the Holy Ghost" (ST
2b:14:2, Sed Contra).
Pope John Paul II writes:
"Against the background of what has been said so far, certain other
words of Jesus, shocking and disturbing ones, become easier to
understand. . . . They are reported for us by the Synoptics in
connection with a particular sin which is called 'blasphemy against
the Holy Spirit.' . . . Why is blasphemy against the Holy Spirit
unforgivable? How should this blasphemy be understood? Saint Thomas
Aquinas replies that it is a question of a sin that is 'unforgivable
by its very nature, insofar as it excludes the elements through which
the forgiveness of sin takes place' (ST 2b:14:3). According to such an
exegesis, 'blasphemy' does not properly consist in offending against
the Holy Spirit in words; it consists rather in the refusal to accept
the salvation which God offers to man through the Holy Spirit, working
through the power of the Cross. If man rejects the 'convincing
concerning sin' which comes from the Holy Spirit and which has the
power to save, he also rejects the 'coming' of the Counsellor . . . If
Jesus says that blasphemy against the Holy Spirit cannot be forgiven
either in this life or in the next, it is because this
'non-forgiveness' is linked, as to its cause, to 'non-repentance', in
other words to the radical refusal to be converted. . . . Blasphemy
against the Holy Spirit, then, is the sin committed by the person who
claims to have a 'right' to persist in evil—in any sin at all . . .
[T]he Church constantly implores with the greatest fervor that there
will be no increase in the world of the sin that the Gospel calls
'blasphemy against the Holy Spirit.' Rather, she prays that it will
decrease in human souls" (Encyclical Letter Dominum et Vivificantem
["The Lord and Giver of Life"] 46-47).
You can read more on this subject here: THE UNFORGIVABLE SIN, James Akin | EWTN.
The sins that appear here are:
- Obstinacy in sin.
- Final impenitence.
- Rejecting salvation.
- Envy at another's spiritual good.
cf. CCC 1864 "Therefore I tell you, every sin and blasphemy will
be forgiven men, but the blasphemy against the Spirit will not be
forgiven." There are no limits to the mercy of God, but anyone who
deliberately refuses to accept his mercy by repenting, rejects the
forgiveness of his sins and the salvation offered by the Holy Spirit.
Such hardness of heart can lead to final impenitence and eternal loss.
cf. PENNY CATECHISM 326 Which are the six sins against the Holy
The six sins against the Holy Spirit are:
- Resisting the known truth
- Envy of another's spiritual good
- Obstinacy in sin
- Final impenitence