The arguments for the position of Replacement Theology start in places like..
And all the people answered, “His
blood be on us and on our children!”
It is further developed by some in saying that the promises given to Abraham have been totally transferred to thr church, vis a vis, Galatians 3:14.
Thus, it is said by them, that all unfulfilled promises to Israel are given to the church, as is the example of the "Rest" of Hebrew 4:8, "Therr remains, therefore, a rest for thr people of God." Snice natural Israel did not enter into that rest, and since God's Word cannot return void, it is given to the believers. The church.
The issue, at hand, however, is that is often read as "The Gentile Church", and there exists no entity in Scripture.
There has to be a proper balance here. Paul lays out the case concerning natural Israel in Romans 10-11.
Paul had just finished explaining how he wished he could be cut off and Israel saved. However, he finished by saying that the very thing the Jews were seeking is both what the Gentiles did achieve and the Jews, in general, failed to. And, his reason was Faith.
So then, after this, Paul continues to express the current condition. He says ththat his prayer is that they will be saved, that is, come into the church, but that there is no difference in how both the Jew and thr Gentile must approach God. It isn't in what you do, ascend to heaven, or desend to hell, it is the Word of Faith in our mouths.
Paul's thesis for this is found, then, in Ephesians 2:14-16.
For He Himself is our peace, who made
both groups into one and broke down
the barrier of the dividing wall,
by abolishing in His flesh the enmity,
which is the Law of commandments
contained in ordinances, so that in
Himself He might make the two into ONE
NEW MAN, thus establishing peace,
and might reconcile them both in one
body to God through the cross, by it
having put to death the enmity.
Ephesians 2:14-16, capitals added.
Paul's phrase "One New Man" thus describes the condition Jesus brought about. Paul, back in Romans 11, thus describe it as an Olive tree. Certain Jews, natural branches, we're broken off, and wild Olive brances, Gentile believers, were grafted in.
Thus, Paul's statement is that there is no more separation, but that the root of the tree is the Jewish Nation. He also warns the Gentiles not to Lord it over the Jews, since they too could easily be replaced by the original if they became conceited.
There is not a "Jewish church" and a "Gentile church", just as there is not a Jewish Gospel and Gentile one. Paul's entire argument hinges that God has grafted Gentiles into the same rootstock as the Jews, and there is now only one. For believers.
What is clear is what Peter said in Acts 2, "Now there is therefore no other name given under heaven whereby men might be saved". Again, in Hebrews, it says, "How shall we escape if we neglect so great a salvation."
So, when asked if the "Jews" have a special place with God, if you refer to the non-believing Israelite, no, they must come to faith in Messiah, the church of God. The church is not a "parenthesis", as dispensationalists claim, is is Christ's soon to be wife! That He paid for with His blood.
If, however, you are asking about the "Jew", who is the child of Abraham by faith in Jesus, then they have are no longer enemies with God, but are reconciled through Jesus.
All this bearing true, with the exception that God has promised the ultimate regathering of the Jews, where He will no longer hide His face frome them, but will pour out His Spirit upon thr nation as a whole. Ezekiel 39:28-29. This, as Paul wrote, will be national salvation, as the entire nation as a whole believes in Messiah, Jesus Christ of Nazareth, and comes at the end of the Gog/Magog war (Ezekiel 38-39). All Israel will be saved.
This is why, earlier in Romans, Paul wrote, for the Gospel's sake they are the believer's "enemies", but for the "election"s sake, God's choosing, they are loved.
Even as the prophets said that so long as seed time and harvest continued, they would always be a nation in His sight, He has not let them go. However, the "Time of the Gentiles" will come to a close (Luke 21) with the restoration of Jerusalem, and they will all be regathered and born again in Yeshua, with Jerusalem most likely as the chief church in the world.
Proponents of total replacement theology tend to minimize the enduring promise and election towards Israel, while those in dispensadispensationalists camps minimize and dismiss the unification of the Jew and Gentile spoken directly in Ephesians 2:15, above.
In groups still maintaining a complete dismissal of the Jews in election are Full Preterists, who maintain that no promises remain for the nationalistic Jews.
While all believers are heirs to the blessings of Abraham, it does appear that the nationalistic and land promises, concerning the perpetuirty, the election, and the land of Israel, are promised to the people, and not merely the "believers".
God still has lovery for, and plans, for the Jewish people, but it is only, and ever, in the name of His Son Jesus, even as He testified that it was their very Scriptures, all of which testified directly of Him.