"What are the differences between Apostles, Prophets, Peter and Jesus Christ in being the “foundation” whereon the church is built?"
I noticed in the book of Revelation, that Peter and the Apostles are listed and named as the foundation stones in the protective wall of the New Jerusalem. The first foundation stone in the protective wall is Jasper, which many Protestants attribute to Peter.
I also found Peter referred to as the first stone which is a Jasper stone on a Protestant web site, where they had a list of all the apostles and were putting them in order of the number of times they were mentioned in each bible book, and I think Peter was listed first, and they decided that he must be the Jasper stone because he was listed the most times and the most times first in 3 gospel books and in Acts.
14 And the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb.
18 And the building of the wall of it was of jasper: and the city was pure gold, like unto clear glass.
19 And the foundations of the wall of the city were garnished with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, a chalcedony; the fourth, an emerald;
20 The fifth, sardonyx; the sixth, sardius; the seventh, chrysolyte; the eighth, beryl; the ninth, a topaz; the tenth, a chrysoprasus; the eleventh, a jacinth; the twelfth, an amethyst.
What does this passage in Revelation show? The apostles were definitely the foundation stones upon which Jesus built His New Jerusalem, they were the foundations of the wall of the city. A wall is a protection.
Even if Peter is the Jasper and he was 'laid ' down first, does this mean he is the single rock upon which the New Jerusalem is built? Not according to the text that states that all of the apostles were foundation stones in the wall of the city.
When Jesus said 'upon this rock I will build my church' if the rock He was speaking of in that example was Peter, Jesus' words prove correct in what we see in Revelation 21 where Peter is indeed named as a foundation rock in the wall of the church/New Jersalem.
Please see: 12 Foundations of the New Jerusalem And the 12 Apostles in Precious Stones in the New Jerusalem.