I'm trying not to give an answer that's purely a quote from the Catechism of the Catholic Church, but the matter is discussed so well there that there isn't much I feel I can add to it:
816 "The sole Church of Christ [is that] which our Savior, after his Resurrection, entrusted to Peter’s pastoral care, commissioning him and the other apostles to extend and rule it.... This Church, constituted and organized as a society in the present world, subsists in (subsistit in) the Catholic Church, which is governed by the successor of Peter and by the bishops in communion with him." [Lumen Gentium 8, section 2]
817 In fact, "in this one and only Church of God from its very beginnings there arose certain rifts, which the Apostle strongly censures as damnable. But in subsequent centuries much more serious dissensions appeared and large communities became separated from full communion with the Catholic Church—for which, often enough, men of both sides were to blame." [Unitatis Redintegratio 3, sec. 1] The ruptures that wound the unity of Christ’s Body—here we must distinguish heresy, apostasy, and schism—do not occur without human sin. ...
818 "However, one cannot charge with the sin of the separation those who at present are born into these communities [that resulted from such separation] and in them are brought up in the faith of Christ, and the Catholic Church accepts them with respect and affection as brothers.... All who have been justified by faith in Baptism are incorporated into Christ; they therefore have a right to be called Christians, and with good reason are accepted as brothers in the Lord by the children of the Catholic Church." [Unitatis Redintegratio 3, sec. 1]
819 ... Christ’s Spirit uses these Churches and ecclesial communities as means of salvation, whose power derives from the fullness of grace and truth that Christ has entrusted to the Catholic Church. All these blessings come from Christ and lead to him.
It appears, then, that these other Christians will be treated as Catholics will, and will no more be "unable to choose to love the true God" than Catholics will.
Please comment on anything you feel I might be able to add to my answer.
Note: I was asked to comment on an answer elsewhere which quotes a papal bull written by Pope Eugenius IV and included among the documents of the Council of Florence, to the effect that pagans, Jews, and other non-Catholics will burn in Hell. I've read the document (not just the quote), and certainly have my own views on it, which I'll be glad to discuss with anyone in chat. However, the question requested official Catholic teaching. I will therefore say this: The quotations I've provided above from the Catechism of the Catholic Church, an official teaching document of the Catholic Church, indicate the current state of the Magisterium, and thus allow for the possibility that Protestants can be saved. As Unitatis Redintegratio (section 3) states,
For [those] who believe in Christ and have been truly baptized are in communion with the Catholic Church even though this communion is imperfect.
This appears to answer the statement of Pope Eugenius.
I'd just like to wrap up with a final quote from Unitatis Redintegratio (section 4):
All in the Church must preserve unity in essentials. But let all, according to the gifts they have received enjoy a proper freedom, in their various forms of spiritual life and discipline, in their different liturgical rites, and even in their theological elaborations of revealed truth. In all things let charity prevail. If they are true to this course of action, they will be giving ever better expression to the authentic catholicity and apostolicity of the Church.
Please see also the accepted answer to "Has the Church stated any advantages or reasoning or prompting to re-formulating positively the Catholic Church's salvation doctrine?". The Church has two formulations to its salvation doctrine, and they should be understood together.