There are a couple of cultural issues in this Scripture that need to be remembered.
Firstly, the money changers used Roman coins which had the image of Caesar on them. Caesar was promoted as 'god' throughout the countries they controlled. For Jews to barter with Roman coins with which to purchase goods to be sacrificed in the Temple was a huge issue. There is one God for Jews, yet the tension was that the goods for temple sacrifice were being bought by coins with a 'god' figure on it. The money lenders were doing their job and more interested in the financial implications of doing business near the Temple, irrespective of what coins were being used. This was a very sensitive issue. It would be like distributing coins with Hitler's image on it to survivors of the Holocaust.
Secondly, there was a fair bit of greed going on with the money changers. They could charge what they liked to their captive audience without having anyone regulate the prices. People who had travelled far and needed to purchase an animal for sacrifice were being charged ridiculous prices. The Jews who were in the city were manipulated by the greed of the money changers. Those Jews were in Jerusalem to offer sacrifice as it was written in the law of Moses, yet they were being taken advantage of by the money lenders.
Also, the animals in the waiting bays to be bought were soiling the holy ground with their droppings. Imagine how soiled the Temple was getting with droppings under people's sandals and walking into the Temple. It would be the equivalent of walking into a special and revered place with animal droppings on the soles of your shoes. The smell would have been overwhelming!
The last point is that as it was a 'market' atmosphere just outside the Temple, it would have been noisy with people yelling and shouting. Not conducive for prayer at all! Jesus was all about stillness and quiet when praying. He may have asked people to be quiet and was probably laughed at, ignored or jeered at by the money lenders. Then he lost it!
So, the disrespect, the noise, the unscrupulous dealings of high prices, the use of roman 'god' images to purchase items of sacrifice to be offered to God frustrated Jesus to the point where he 'defended' God with his actions of anger.