To answer your question we must agree on (a) what "Christianity" is; (b) what we mean by "denominations"; and (c) whose intent we are referring to when we ask, "Was Christianity intended to have denominations?"
The Concise Oxford English Dictionary defines "Christianity" as "the religion based on the person and teachings of Christ." If we hold this particular definition, then we would say that one who holds beliefs contrary to the teaching of Christ would not be considered a true Christian - at least in the dictionary sense of the word.
Following the COED once more, a "denomination" is defined as "a recognized autonomous branch of a church or religion". Here, we could classify such denominations as:
(a) Denominations which hold no beliefs contrary to the teachings of Christ
(b) Denominations which hold some beliefs contrary to the teachings of Christ
The Intent for Christianity
We would say here that those denominations which hold no beliefs contrary to the teachings of Christ (a) are truly Christian denominations; whereas those who hold some beliefs contrary to the teachings of Christ (b) are not truly Christian denominations.
We recall from the Acts of the Apostles that those first called Christians were the disciples and they were first so-called in Antioch (Acts 11:26). Except for Acts 11:26, the word "Christian" appears only on two other occasions in the Bible (Acts 26:28 and 1 Peter 4:16). Other than that, everywhere that we might use the word "Christian" today, the word "disciple" (Greek mathētēs) is used. Occasionally we find reference to something called the Way (e.g. Acts 9:2), where we might use the word Christianity.
We know from the Acts of the Apostles that those disciples who were of the Way did, in fact, branch into "denominations" in the above dictionary sense - recognized autonomous branches. We read in Acts 2:47 that those such as should be saved were added to the Church daily (the Greek uses the definite pronoun), but we also know that there were local branches: the church that was at Antioch (Acts 13:1), the churches that were confirmed in Syria and Cilicia (Acts 15:41), the church at Caesarea (Acts 16:5), etc. Paul, in writing to the Romans, writes, the churches of Christ salute you (Romans 16:16).
As far as we know from the New Testament Scriptures, these churches held beliefs that were entirely consistent with the teachings of Christ. We know that when they could not agree on some point of doctrine, the Church leaders met in council to resolve their understandings (e.g. the council in Jerusalem, Acts 15:2-35). The Church, being the pillar and foundation of truth (1 Timothy 3:15), cannot abide in untruth.
The second class of denomination - those that hold beliefs contrary to the teachings of Christ - had, however, no place whatsoever in the early Church. The inevitability of such denominations arising was well anticipated: Paul wrote, I hear that there be divisions among you; and I partly believe it. For there must be also heresies among you, that they which are approved may be manifest (1 Corinthians 11:19). But this in no way implies that the Apostles sanctioned their existence. Adherents to these divisions would not have been considered true disciples of the Way (i.e. "Christians").