Hebrew and Greek Words Translated as 'Wine'
When the Bible referes to "wine" it does not necessarily refer to the same thing every time, there are at least 18 different words that have all been translated as "wine" somewhere in the bible, they are listed below.
It is interesting to note that in the N.T., which was composed in Koine Greek, all occurrences of wine are primarily translated from the generic term "Oinos" which is used to refer to all types of wine EXCEPT Shekar, which is defined below as, "What satiates, intoxicates" and is rendered instead in Greek as "Sikera" which is translated as "Strong Drink."
The wine that we know most certainly existed in Christ's time, but not all references to wine made in the bible are the same kind of drink, some were most certainly just juice.
The only occurrence of the word "juice" anywhere in the bible is in
Song of Solomon 8:2;
... I would cause thee to drink of spiced wine of the juice of my pomegranate.
The Hebrew word asis translated in this verse as "juice", is translated everywhere else in the bible as either "new wine", or "sweet wine".
Yayin - Generic term for the "juice of the grape", either fermented or unfermented; meaning "what is pressed out".
Tirosh - "Freshly expressed grape-juice in its natural condition". Translated in the Authorized Version (A.V.) as "new wine" eleven times; "wine" twenty-six times; "sweet wine" once; and "vintage" three times. Always translated as "new wine" in the Revised Version (R.V.). Not used for fermented wine.
Shekar - Hebrew: "What satiates, intoxicates". A saccharine drink rendered as "strong drink" (21x), and "strong wine" (1x). Described as a liquor made from dates, barley, etc. and always as a curse. In the Greek Old Testament (LXX) rendered as 'sikera', or sometimes as 'methusma' or 'methé'; and once as 'oinos'. Occurs only once in the New Testament (N.T.).
Asis - "Anything pressed on or trodden out". Rendered as "juice" (1x), "new wine" (2x), and "sweet wine" (2x). Not necessarily unfermented; not to be confused with "tirosh" (ISAIAH 49:26; JOEL 1:5; JOEL 3:18; AMOS 9:13).
Ashishah - Denotes "a cake of raisins". Rendered wrongly in A.V. as "flagons", but corrected in the Revised Versions.
Chemer - "A thick, sticky syrup; foaming juice". Indicates all kinds of wine (ISAIAH 27:2).
Chamar - The Aramaic form, used in EZRA 6:9 and DANIEL 5:1-4, literally means "foaming" and denotes fermented wine.
Sobe - "Anything sucked in or up". Probably indicated inspissated or boiled wines. Non-intoxicating beverage. 'Sobe-yayin' - lit. "soakers of wine".
Shemer - "What is preserved; the sediment". Rendered as "dregs", "lees", or "wine in the lees" (See ISAIAH 25:6).
Nasek - "Drink offering". Lit. "that which is poured out; a libation".
Mimsak - "Anything mixed". Rendered "drink-offering", or "mixed wine" (ISAIAH 65:11).
Yeqeb - Originally a vat or trough; then used as a wine-press or wine-vat. Occurs 16 times (e.g. NUMBERS 18:27).
Enab - Ripe or round grape, or grape-cake (HOSEA 3:1).
Chomets - Vinegar, sour or unripe grapes (Greek: 'oxos').
Misteh - General term for beverage, especially wine (EZRA 3:7; DANIEL 1:10).
Oinos - Generic term (used in the LXX) for all kinds of wine except 'shekar'. Also occurs in N.T. (Greek) 32 times.
Sikera - Greek: "Strong drink" (See 'shekar').
Gleukos - Used only once (ACTS 2:13), as "new wine"; corresponds to fermented.
Methuo - To be "drunk", or "filled to the full" (Greek).