Does the Bible provide any rules or even any indication about what kind or style of music is appropriate, both for worship and in general?
I don't think the Bible makes any mention of musical style. What it does say is to "Make a joyful noise unto the lord" (KJV), Psalm 100.
Modern music of course is usually accompanied by words, and the Bible of course does have much to say about words. "Let no unwholesome talk come out of your mouth" Ephesians 4:29, which could apply any popular music.
Given the premise that "All Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness" (2 Tim 3:16), and recognizing that the scripture to which Paul refers is the Hebrew scripture (since the NT had not yet be formulated), it is be reasonable to examine what pleased God in worship in the Old Testament.
The Old Testament frequently mentions use of song, musical instruments and dancing in praise and worship. A great example is Psalm 150:
1 Praise the LORD.[a] Praise God in his sanctuary; praise him in his mighty heavens.
2 Praise him for his acts of power; praise him for his surpassing greatness.
3 Praise him with the sounding of the trumpet, praise him with the harp and lyre, 4 praise him with timbrel and dancing, praise him with the strings and pipe, 5 praise him with the clash of cymbals, praise him with resounding cymbals.
Sounds like a lot of instruments in there, including brass, woodwind, percussion and strings.