Dante's Divine Comedy, the 14th century epic poem describing a journey through the various levels of Hell, Purgatory and Heaven and the persons or types of persons who inhabit each level (including some of Dante's living contemporaries). How much of Dante's description describes explicit Church doctrine as of his era, and to what extent, if any, did Dante influence Christian theology going forward?
The geography of the afterlife is not a topic where the church had "doctrine" as such, though there have always been a variety of traditions and stories about this sort of thing. Dante's scheme does reflect an underlying theology, so I'll tackle this from a theological perspective. The layouts of Hell, Purgatory and Heaven are all in some sense "orthodox" in that they are drawn from recognized classifications of sin and virtue. Dante does not claim that this is how things literally are in those realms - especially when we get to Heaven, and the entire scheme is reinterpreted several times, as he grows in understanding. The moral truth is what counts.
There are some specific areas where Dante does things which are novel, and sometimes opposed to actual doctrine.
- The vestibule of Hell, an antechamber where the lukewarm, who were neither good nor bad, are stuck forever - this is new. If this area counts as "basically Hell anyway" then it's fine, since all souls are meant to be destined one way or the other. I think the lower levels of ante-Purgatory are also original to Dante, though I'm not sure about that.
- Saladin is placed among the righteous pagans, whereas as a Muslim he "ought" to be classed as at least a heretic or schismatic. Mohammed, for example, is placed in the eighth circle of Hell. This indicates some leniency from Dante about whether someone who is aware of Christianity, but does not convert, attracts the maximum penalty.
- Really bad people in the ninth circle (Inferno 33) are said to have descended to Hell while still alive, and their bodies are now possessed by demons. This is completely unorthodox, since standard Catholicism/Christianity holds that one can repent even in the moment of death.
- The garden of Eden, or Earthly Paradise, is situated at the summit of Purgatory, which itself is a huge mountain directly on the other side of the world from Jerusalem. This is not completely new - Bede thought Purgatory might be a mountain, and the Eden-Purgatory association was also previously suggested, due to the common image of fire (the flaming sword of Genesis 3:24) and the restoration to primal innocence. The combination of this ideas is new, and Dante gave them a higher profile.
Contemporary doctrinal criticism of Dante was more about his politics, which were perceived as anti-Papal and anti-clerical. His idea of the division of responsibility between Pope and Emperor - a prototype for modern separation of church and state - was arguably heretical, even as late as 1864 and the Syllabus of Errors.
I believe there are many points on which Dante had disagreed with the Church teachings of his times.
For example Divine Comedy was written around 1308 A.D. to 1321 A.D, in which he has depicted many Popes as suffering eternal damnation in hell namely Pope Anastasius II and Pope Nicholas III. Even though The doctrine of Papal infallibility was defined dogmatically in the First Vatican Council of 1869–1870, it had been believed before that, appearing in medieval traditions. So the Pope was supposed to be infallible regarding his decisions about Catholic faith and such a person being in hell was definitely against the dogmatic beliefs of the Church.
Limbo is not an official doctrine of the Catholic Church, but Dante's version of hell has one.
He has condemned Pope Nicholas III for
Simony. But Simony was dogmatically believed by the Church of Dante's times.
I think Dante "defined" the afterlife for many. I have read that the masterpiece was NOT the Inferno but rather the Purgatorio. Having read the entire Commedia many times, I tend to agree with that assessment. The mountain structure of the Purgatorio and the ending, where Dante parts company with Virgil and has his encounter with Beatrice, is profound and beautiful.
It is useful to contrast the early church and its optimism with the Medieval and modern church, so imbued with Augustine. Dante seems to have fallen on the side of Augustine, IMHO, but you still see signs of the hope that the earlier Patristic fathers embraced, among them Clement and John Cassian.
I've read the Bible and studied it for 30+ years. Nothing in The Divine Comedy is defined in the Bible and many things in the Bible directly contradict it. The Divine Comedy is a fictional work of poetry and it has define what Christian's believe, in part, today. Some Christian's try to explain things about Christianity and begin referencing The Divine Comedy without even knowing it.
If you read the Bible, outside of Revelation (a hugely metaphorical work) where is hell mentioned? Where is the afterlife even described?
There are passages in the old testament where Heaven and the Angels are described but they're nothing like The Divine Comedy. References to hell are Jesus not even talking about the afterlife, but there here and now in this life on earth and our experience of it.
The Divine Comedy has turned Christianity into the self-righteous do what I say or go to hell theology it has become. It contradicts the Bible. Maybe we should change the name of Christianity to Comedianism because it is basically beliefs based on The Divine Comedy much more than the Bible. People don't believe in God's forgiveness or mercy any more just worries about going to hell if you are gay or believe in evolution.
Where the hell is any of that in the Bible? Nowhere. Look it up...on a scholarly website not answers in genesis. Anyway, forget EVERYTHING you know about Christianity and start reading the bible cold, with an open mind, and you will be surprised by how little you really knew.