There's... a lot. There aren't really exclusive non-overlapping 'kinds' of sin so much as there are a whole bunch of different classification schema we use which break up the landscape in different useful ways for different reasons. Catholic theologians have answered the question "What are the kinds of Sin" many, many times in different ways for different reasons. The mortal/venial distinction is probably the most important, but I think the actual/original distinction is up there in terms of helping combat misconceptions about sin. A brief but tolerable introduction to the topic can be read here, which covers the basic distinctions and their purposes. You have asked for a list of descriptors with brief definitions, and that is what I have tried to provide below, but be aware it is incomplete and wrong due to its brevity:
mortal- resulting in the destruction of charity and loss of sanctifying grace.
venial- not mortal
grave- having 'grave matter' as its object.
light- not having 'grave matter' as its object.
actual- sin stemming from the actions (or lack thereof) of a person which rest on that person.
original- sin stemming from the action of a person (i.e. The Man and The Woman) which rest on a different person. This definition is suspect, but I am unsure how to fit a proper treatment of original sin in so short a space. Please read the New Advent article.
comission- sins in which you do evil (i.e. you take an action other than not taking an action and the action you take is evil)
omission- sins in which you 'fail to do' in an evil manner (i.e. you take the action of not taking an action and that not-doing is evil)
ignorance- sins which you commit through vincible ignorance (i.e. you're stupid and it's your own dang fault)
passion- sins which you commit in voluntarily entertaining passions in an evil way (e.g. hatred towards a person or the people in general)
infirmity- not, as far as I can tell, well defined.
malice- Sins motivated by hatred, especially of persons (which is never licit). When this malice is directed at the person of God Himself it is the worst kind of sin, mortal, and indeed correctly characterized as diabolical.
thought- sins committed via thought. Much overlap with sins of passion.
word- sins committed via communication.
deed- sins committed via doing stuff in the world, physically.
material- not actually a sin, but contrary to the Divine Law. Actions whose morality is expunged by insanity or invincible ignorance or some such.
formal- actually a sin due to the state of the will. used to contrast with material.
internal- sins that take place entirely inside oneself.
morbid pleasure- enjoying fantasizing about sinful things without willing them to happen
gaudium- looking back on past sins with gladness and complacency
desire- wanting sinful things
pride- sins stemming from the similarly named vice
greed- sins stemming from the similarly named vice
gluttony- sins stemming from the similarly named vice
sloth- sins stemming from the similarly named vice
lust- sins stemming from the similarly named vice
envy- sins stemming from the similarly named vice
wrath-sins stemming from the similarly named vice