There is no surviving Roman census document that lists Jesus. But this isn't particularly surprising: most such ancient documents don't survive. It's not like we have a copy of the census rolls and they jump from "Jeremiah" to "Jethro" with Jesus glaringly omitted. The rolls of that census no longer exist.
We do have surviving copies of a book by Tertullian, "An Answer to the Jews", written ca AD 197, in which he makes a brief mention, when describing Jesus's background, "As, among the Romans, Mary is described in the census, of whom is born Christ." Similarly, in his book "Against Marcion", he mentions Jesus's "enrolment in the census of Augustus— that most faithful witness of the Lord's nativity, kept in the archives of Rome". He makes these statements in a very straightforward and confidant way -- no weasle words like "these records are probably there" or "they were there at one time". There's a pretty clear implication that anyone who wants to check up on his facts could do so. If he was just making this up, he was a great bluffer. He would have made an excellent poker player.
Tertullian was the son of a Roman centurion and there is some evidence that he himself was a lawyer, so he might well have seen the census documents himself or spoken to someone who had.