As the title asks, how many bilateral covenants occur in scripture between God and His creation (this does not include bilateral covenants between humans and humans, e.g., a marriage covenant between a man and a woman, or the covenant between Avraham and Avimelekh).
Here is a list of the covenants which the Bible explicitly describes God making. It is possible that there are other covenants (such as with Adam), but the Bible does not use covenantal language to talk about them.
- The Noahic covenant, which God made in Genesis 9:8-10 with all humans and land animals/birds, in which he promised to never again flood the earth
- The Abrahamic covenant, which God made in Genesis 15:17-20 with Abram, in which he promises to give to Abram and his descendants the land of Canaan for ever
- The Mosaic covenant, which God made in Exodus 19:3-8 with the people of Israel, in which he would take them to be his special people if they are faithful to him.
- In a way the Mosaic covenant was made and remade a few times. Other important passages include the Ten Commandments in Exodus 20, the confirmation of the covenant in Exodus 24, the remaking of the covenant in Exodus 34 after the golden calf, and the confirmation of the covenant by the next generation in Deuteronomy
- Phinehas' covenant, which God made in Numbers 25:12-13 with Phinehas and his descendants, in which he promises them peace and the priesthood
- God made many exclusive promises to the priests in other places, but this is the first time that he makes a covenant with them
- The Davidic covenant, which God made in 2 Samuel 7:8-16 (and called a covenant in 7:28) with David, in which he promises that one of David's descendants will always have the throne of Israel
- The New Covenant, which God promised to make in Jeremiah 31:31-34, and which he did make through the death and resurrection of Jesus
- There are a few references to the New Covenant in the NT, but not many. I would guess that covenants were an outdated cultural artefact by the time of the NT, so that covenantal language is one of the less common ways to talk about the gospel. But there still are some references to the New Covenant, particularly in Hebrews 8-9.
Although we often find various covenants spoken of in scripture such as the covenant with Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, etc. there are really only two covenants between God and man. The remaining covenants are merely modifications, progressions, or what might be called dispensations of the only two covenants.
The first covenant is the covenant of works established in the creation of Adam and Eve. By virtue of being created mankind was under natural duty to love and be absolutely obedient to God. If Adam were to fully obey God, during some period of testing, he would have obtained eternal life for humanity from works. That is to say that Adam was a federal head and representative of the covenant of works with respect to humanity. Upon Adam's sin or obedience, mankind would have been imputed with death and sin, or righteousness and life forever.
Upon the breaking of that first holy covenant, resulting in the death and moral fall of all mankind, a new covenant was required according to the love and mercy of God as well as his justice in being unable to forgive sin. The second and final covenant was the covenant of grace being promised through the seed of the woman, who was to crush the head of the serpent and restoring the creation to God.
These two single covenants run parallel throughout the redemptive history of scripture and never absolutely join as they are opposed to one another, in that one is of works and one is of grace. From Adam to the end of the world, man has and always will have the choice of remaining condemned under the covenant of works, or through faith in the promised seed, obtain new birth and eternal life under the covenant of grace. Before Christ, men believed in the new covenant as a promise, after Christ men believed it as a historical proclamation n the gospel.
That there was a long and steady degeneracy of the original knowledge of the covenant of works is evident in the progression of idolatry. At the same time that there was a slow developed progression of the knowledge of the covenant of grace until the climatic revelation of Jesus Christ and the full clarity of the gospel and law as proclaimed in the Epistles of the New Testament, is evident in the history of Israel and the gospel eventually extended to the gentile world. To properly understand these two covenants and to properly distinguish them from one another is the most significant work of theology.
Under the Old Testament, the knowledge of the original law and the promise seems to have degenerated greatly in the world until the time of the flood. In the calling of Abraham, God called a people to preserve the understanding of law as well as the future promise. This preservation by race preserved the knowledge and curse of the law by their commands, its severe punishments and their continuous national failure to obey it. This race also preserved the promise in its actual the lineage of the great Messiah to come, pointed to by their various ceremonial prefigurations of atonement. By re-starting humanity, in a sense, under Noah, purging the filth of the world, God modified the covenant of works and re-established the covenant of grace. By "killing the whole world' law and its curse on sinful man was revived. By putting up the rainbow high up into view, the promise was then renewed. These are not new covenants strictly speaking just renewals of the same two covenants. Through Abraham, both covenants were again further strengthened in separating a people unto holiness, condemning the world through law, while also promising the seed more explicitly along specific descendants.
In calling Moses to establish an outward form of religion, first this clearly re-enforced the covenant of works in its condemnation of sin and fearful capital punishments for the least offense. Again also the ceremonies and theocracy figuratively further established both the law and the covenant of grace. The ceremonies established law in enforcing the need of forgiveness, while establishing grace in prefiguring Christ. The theocracy established law in the commands of the King and his support of the law with its civil rules direct under God, yet also again prefigured the grace in the resurrection of Christ. Both covenants were made stronger in men's understanding through Israel, while yet being of opposed means, one of works the other of faith.
Having established both parallel covenants under one system of practice, the covenant of works under the Law and the covenant of grace to redeem from that Law, a greater light of these two covenants was provided for through the Mosaic arrangement. Furthermore, the Law it its condemnation and death, was now through figures and ceremony directed and officially pointed to unto a new end and new covenant, for all pointed to the work of the High Priest and the atoning sacrifices which was not so wonderfully arranged into clear picture before this time. The new covenant was to be the end of the old covenant and so the theocracy, ceremony and outwardly written laws under them. The end of the old law by the new is not a destruction but a superseding and fulfilling end. However the old law and its claims upon the guilt of the sinner is absolutely destroyed in Christ's death otherwise there is no salvation for anyone.
In the fullness of time, that is when the world and the Jewish church had both fully fallen into an absolute failure to find any means of saving themselves, Christ appeared. In his death, he destroyed the demands of the first covenant, ended the temporary figurative and theocratic elements of the dispensation of a physical church, provided the full accomplishment of the priestly works to ratify the new covenant, and rose and entered into glory to act as the new federal head and representative of a new humanity. By raising up as a King, Priest and Prophet, sending his Spirit into the world to continue his work until the end of the age, the first covenant was officially superseded and its claims on the conscience destroyed. The new covenant was absolutely ratified before the court of the Father and to the delight of angels and men. The Spirit now works upon the consciences of men, saving those that perish by proclaiming this gospel with certainty to the eternal salvation of any soul that will but believe apart from any work under the original covenant of works.
Conclusion: There are only two covenants from Adam to the end of the world, but they have undergone modifications and progressions. The first covenant broken by Adam maintains an eternal curse on everyone who has not entered into the new covenant by faith. The new covenant in every way superseded the old covenant just as the Sun takes away the light of the Moon when it rises.
Note: I should probably add scripture references to this post but I just typed it quickly as it came to mind. As each sentence can be referred to by numerous biblical references I am afraid I would have never attempted to answer as it would have taken me hours. I would not usually do so but I am relying on the reader to have some knowledge of the bible to know that each step of my argument can refer to very numerous biblical references. I have done this as the question really requires a broad brush of scripture as it is a very difficult and broad question.
This answer is solely based in the content present in The New Unger's Bible Dictionary.
Definition of covenant
The term applied to various transactions between God and man, and man and his fellowman. In Obadiah (v.7) it is rendered "allied". In the NT the word diatheke, "disposition" or "will" respecting a person or thing, is used; sometimes it is translated "Testament" (which see), at other times "covenant".
Application of the Term
Properly used of a compact between man and man; either between tribes or nations (1 Sam. 11:1; Josh. 9:6, 15), or between individuals (Gen 21:27), in which each party bound himself to fulfill certain conditions and was promised certain advantages. In making covenants God was solemnly invoked as a witness (31:35), whence the expression "a covenant of the Lord" (1 Sam. 20:8; cf. Jer. 34:18-19; Ezek. 17:19), and an oath was sworn (Gen. 21:31). Accordingly, a breach of covenant was regarded as a heinous sin (Ezek. 17:12-20). The marriage contract is called "the covenant of . . . God" (Prov. 2:17). As a witness to the covenant a gift was presented (Gen. 21:30) or a heap of stones set up (31:52).
It is also improperly used as covenant between God and man. As man is not in the position of an independent covenanting party, such a covenant is not strictly a mutual compact but a promise on the part of God to arrange His providences for the welfare of those who should render Him obedience.
The following covenants are mentioned in Scripture:
The Covenant with Noah
The Covenant with Abraham
The Covenant with Israel
The Covenant with David
What about The New Covenant?
In the NT we read of only two covenants - the New and the Old, the former brought in and established by Christ, and the latter in consequence ceasing to exist. The Old, i.e., the covenant of law, with all its outward institutions and ritualistic services, is regarded as the Old because its full and formal ratification took place before the other. In germ the New Covenant (or that of grace) existed from the first; and partial exhibitions of it have been given all through the world's history. It was involved in the promise of recovery at the Fall.
Here are fifteen covenants found in Scripture. Even though they may not be in all cases labeled as covenants, it is my opinion that they all match the following definition of a covenant:
A covenant is an agreement entered into by two or more persons. The fifteen agreements below are contracts entered into between God and man, which reveals the relationship of these persons to each other. Where certain conditions are not stated, they are certainly implied and understood between the parties themselves
The solaric covenant (Ref: Gen 1:14-18): Covenant made between God and man. God promises man eternal seasons of fruitfulness and eternal continuation in the natural state. Condition of the covenant: as long as the solar system endures.
The Edenic covenant (Ref: Gen 1:26-3:24): covenant made with Adam and Eve before the fall. The condition was that they (Adam and Eve) remain true to God (Gen 2:17). The clauses of the covenant were for man to
- Replenish the earth (Gen 1:28)
- Subdue the earth and rule the works of God (Gen 1:28; Ps. 8)
- Till the ground and be a caretaker of the Garden (Gen 2:15)
- Abstain from the tree of knowledge (Gen. 2:17)
- Understand that the punishement for disobedience was death (Gen. 2:17)
- Replenish the earth (Gen 1:28)
The Adamic covenant (Gen. 3:14-19): The covenant was made with Adam and Eve after the Fall and before they were expelled from the garden of Eden. There was two major parts in the covenant:
- The five-fold curse
- On the serpent (Gen 3:14-15; Isa. 65:25)
- On Satan (Gen. 3:15, Jn. 12:31; Col 2:14-17; Heb 2:14-18)
- On the woman (Gen 3:16; 1 Cor 11:3; 14:34; 1 Tim. 2:11-15)
- On the man (Gen 3:17-19; Ps. 90:9-10; Rom. 5:12-21)
- On the ground (Gen 3:17-19; Rom. 8:18-23)
- The promise (Gen. 3:15). It includes the complete redemption with the removal of the curse
- The five-fold curse
The Cainic covenant (Gen 4:11-15): God made a covenant with Cain stipulating that he would be protected and avenged in case anyone found him and killed him.
The Noahic covenant (Gen. 8:20-9:29): It was made with Noah and the beasts of the field after the flood. The clauses of this covenant includes
- That while the earth remaineth, God would not curse the ground and the living creatures anymore (Gen 8:22; 9:12, 16)
- That man should replenish the earth forever (Gen. 9:1, 12, 16)
- That man should rule the earth (Gen 9:2-3)
- That animal should be eaten but not the blood (Gen. 9:3, 4)
- That there should be capital punishment for murderers (Gen. 9:5-6; Num. 35)
- That the rainbow should be the sign of the covenant (Gen. 9:12-17)
- That the covenant would be eternal (Gen. 9:12, 16)
The Abrahamic covenant (Gen. 12:1-13): after the confusion of tongues, God saw that it was impossible to deal with the whole race. He singled out one man and made a covenant with him. The clauses of the covenant are as follow:
- The seven-fold promise:
- "I will make thee a great nation" (Gen. 12:1-3; 13-16; 17:18-20; 24:34-35; Gal. 3)
- "Make thy name great" (Gen. 12:1-3; Exod. 2:24-25; 6:3-8)
- "Thou shalt be a blessing" (Gen. 12:1-3; Gal. 3:13-14)
- "I will bless them that bless thee" (Gen. 12:1-3; Mt. 25:31-46)
- "I will bless thee" (Gen. 13:14-18; 15:18-21; Gal. 3)
- "I will curse them that curse thee" (Zech. 14; Mt. 25:31-46)
- "In thee shall all nations of the world be blessed" (Deut. 28:8-14; Isa. 60:3-5; 66:18-21; Gal. 3:16; Jn. 8:56-58)
The sign of the covenant: circumcision (Gen. 17:1-21; Isa. 24:5)
- The seven-fold promise:
The Hagaric covenant (Gen. 16:7-14): God made this covenant with Hagar and with Ishmael, Abraham's son for many generations. The clauses of the covenant were:
- Return and submit to Sarah (Gen. 16:9)
- Call the son Ishmael, meaning God will hear (Gen 16:11)
- Multiply her seed beyond number (Gen. 16:10; 17:20)
- Blessings on Ishmael to become a great nation (Gen. 17:20; 21:17-18)
- Ishmael to beget twelve princes like Jacob (Gen. 17:20; 25:12-18)
- Prophetic revelation
- Ishmael to be a wild man (Gen. 16:12)
- His hand to be against every man (Gen. 16:12)
- Every man's hand will be against him (Gen. 16:12)
- He shall dwell in the presence of his brethren (Gen. 16:12)
The Sarahic covenant (Gen. 17:15-19; 18:9-15): God made a covenant with Sarah, promising her certain blessings as well as to her offspring Isaac, for many generations. The following are part of the covenant:
- Change her name from Sarai to Sarah, which means "princess" (Gen. 17:15)
- Call her son Isaac (Gen. 17:19)
- Bless Sarah with a son (Gen. 17:16-19; 19:10-15)
- Make her a mother of nations (Gen 17:16)
- Make her a mother of many kings (Gen. 17:16)
- Continue the Abrahamic covenant with Isaac (Gen. 17:19)
- Continue the Abrahamic covenant with Isaac's seed forever (Gen. 17:19)
The Healing covenant (Exod. 15:26; 23:25): God made this covenant with Israel as well as with all who desire to come under the covenant as given to Moses. The covenant comprises:
- Diligently harken to God's voice (Exod. 15:26; Lev. 26:14-15)
- Do what is right in His sight (Exod. 15:26)
- Give ear to his commandments (Exod. 15:26)
- Keep all His statutes (Exod 15:26; Lev. 26:3; 14-15)
- Serve the Lord (Exod. 23:25)
- I will put none of the diseases upon thee (Meaning I will allow none of them to come upon you) (Exod. 15: 26)
- I am the Lord that healeth thee (Which is also God's redemptive Name, Jehovah Rapha) (Exod. 15:26)
- I will take away sickness from the midst of thee (Exod. 23:25)
This covenant is included in the New covenant: Christ took our infirmities and bare our sicknesses (Isa. 53; Mt. 8:17; 1 Pet 2:24)
The Palestinian covenant (Deut. 27:1-30:20): God made this covenant with Israel through Moses and its condition was the obedience of Israel (Deut 11:8-32; 27:1-30:20; Lev. 26:1-46). It is made of the following clauses
- Dispersion for disobedience (Deut. 30:1; 28:63-68)
- Repentance while in dispersion (Deut. 30:2; Zech 12:10-14)
- The return of the Lord (Deut. 30:3; Acts 15:14-17; Zech 14)
- Restoration in the land (Deut. 30:5; Isa. 11:1-12; Mt. 24:31; Ezek. 37)
- National conversion (Deut. 30:6; Rom. 11:26-27; Zech. 12:10-13; Isa. 66)
- Judgment of Israel's oppressors (Deut. 30:7; Mt. 25:31-46; Zech. 14)
- National prosperity (Deut. 30:9-10; Rom. 11)
The covenant of Levi (Num. 25:10-14): God made a covenant with Levi's son Phinehas, who was jealous for the Lord and executed judgment upon rebels (Num. 25:1-9). It comprises two major promises
- A covenant of peace and blessing to Levi's house (Num. 25:12)
- An everlasting priesthood (Num. 25:13)
The covenant of Salt (Lev. 2:13; Num. 18:19): God made this covenant with Israel concerning the sacrifices they were to offer forever. Salt was used in making covenant in Palestine and the surrounding countries, and the worst enemies would become friends if they ate the same food with salt in it. This covenant expressed everlasting friendship between God and His people.
The Davidic covenant (2 Sam. 7:1-17): God made this covenant with David through the intermediation of prophet Nathan. The condition was obedience as in other covenant and it comprises the following blessings:
- A Davidic house forever (2 Sam. 7:13-16; Ps. 89:20-37; Lk. 1:32-35)
- A Davidic throne forever (2 Sam. 7:12-16; Isa. 9:6-7; Lk. 1:32-35)
- A Davidic kingdom forever (2 Sam. 7:12-16; Isa. 9:6-7; Lk. 1:32-35)
- A sure land for Israel forever (2 Sam. 7:10; Gen. 17)
- No more affliction from the nations forever (2 Sam. 7:10; Deut. 28:1-30:10)
- The fatherly care of God forever (2 Sam. 7:14; 2 Cor 6:15-18)
- An eternal covenant (2 Sam. 7:10-16; Isa. 9:6-7; Lk 1:32-33)
And of course the Old covenant and the New Covenant. Christ fulfilled the Old covenant law before he abolished it and enforced the New Covenant (Mt. 5:17-18; Jn 1:17; Gal 5:19-21; Acts 15:5-29, Eph 2:15; Col 2:14-17,...)
Ref: - Dake's God's plan for man (Lessons thirty-six, Fifteen great covenants of Scripture and british-israelism)