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17

Without question, Theophilus of Antioch (d. 183) is your man. He wrote in Greek: [God's creations on the first three days--light, sky, and vegetation--] are types of the Trinity [Τριάδος], of God, and His Word, and His wisdom. And the fourth [day, the creation of the moon and stars,] is the type of man, who needs light, that so there may be God, the ...


11

Yes. I have been able to find two letters, one related to the calling of the Council of Nicea and the other related to the judgment of the Council of Constantinople, where the word "persons" is used to describe the relations within the Godhead. Council of Nicea (325) First, some background. Alexander of Alexandria's conflict with Arius was the impetus for ...


11

Here are four common defenses of this doctrine: The masculine pronoun in Greek is applied to the Holy Spirit even when not required by Greek grammar The Holy Spirit is shown to be in a coordinating relationship with other persons, such as the Father and Son, as well as humans, suggesting that he also is a Person The Holy Spirit has personal attributes and ...


10

From a Trinitarian standpoint there is nothing to reconcile. As with most things, the answer is found in the context. The whole of John 1:18 reads: "No one has seen God at any time; the only begotten God who is in the bosom of the Father, He has explained Him." (NASB) The person John refers to here is the same one Jesus exclaims in John 6:46: "Not that ...


9

Tertullian: Earliest extant use of term Tertullian (155 - 240) was, famously, the first Latin writer to use the word "trinity" in his anti-Sabellian treatise Against Praxeas. It also contains the earliest known uses (16 total) of the word "persons" in reference to the Godhead. The mystery of the dispensation is still guarded, which distributes the Unity ...


8

John Byl, in his article "Newton and the Trinity", paints a clear picture that Newton was non-trinitarian. Newton's published works do not contain clear statements of this nature. In his private notebooks however, some of which were not examined completely until the mid 20th century, Newton committed a significant amount of effort to criticizing the Church's ...


7

I don't think I could improve upon the summary at the Orthodox Wiki: Objections on doctrinal grounds It is contrary to Scripture, particularly in John 15:26: "But when the Helper comes, whom I shall send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who proceeds from the Father, He will testify of Me." Thus, Christ never describes the Holy Spirit ...


7

I believe that the answer to this is something related to the narrative's approach. We can infer from what we know about the godhead, that the Son loves the Father, but the focus in the gospels narrative is not that, the focus is that the Father loves the Son, then, the Son loves us and the Son obey the Father. I'll try to examplify this with some text. ...


6

To R. C. Sproul and many other Christians, the word essence is a near-synonym of being or substance in a philosophical sense. It is the English word that he feels best conveys the meaning of the word that the Greeks used when describing unchangeable, ultimate reality: ousios (the present participle of the Greek verb "to be"). Sproul adopts a Platonic ...


6

From a Swedenborgian perspective, there is a simple answer and a complex answer to this question. The Simple Answer The simple answer does not require the theology of Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772) at all. It only requires common human experience: Jesus was talking to himself. People often talk to themselves. Sometimes they even do it out loud! I doubt ...


6

Both God the Father and the Holy Spirit are spirits. For example, catholic.com states, ... verses, such as John 4:24, where Jesus teaches us: "God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth." This means God has no body, because a spirit is, by nature, an incorporeal being. The Church Fathers, of course, agreed, and ...


6

In reality, John 15:26 supports both the Eastern Orthodox and the (Western) Catholic positions, because (at least as far as the Catholic Church is concerned) both positions are valid and complementary. (Note that Eastern Catholics—those who follow the same rites as the Eastern Orthodox but are in communion with the Bishop of Rome—continue to favor the Greek ...


5

Yes, it's long! Yes, I know this is a long answer. Sorry about that! However, given the huge amount of ink (and pixels) that has been expended on the doctrine of the Trinity for almost two thousand years now, I do not see how justice can be done to the subject in the brief answers that are preferred here on StackExchange. I therefore ask for your patience ...


5

The short answer to the O.P.’s question that their will proceeds from the Divine Nature. There is only one Divine Will, and each Person wills with the very same Will. It is misleading to say that the Persons “share” the Divine Will, because that would seem to imply that its use is “distributed” among the Persons—like when people share a sandwich. In fact, ...


5

It's actually a pretty simple explanation within ontological Trinitarianism, understanding two basic facts about Trinitarianism: "God" undifferentiated in scripture typically refers to the Father, as the head of the Trinity. The person of the Father is the hypostasis associated with the origination of the divine will. Jesus, as the divine Logos and Son ...


5

1.The Jewish and Islamic concept of God is the same: one God, one person, one mind.This is same in Talmud, a central text of Rabbinic Judaism written between 200 CE/AD- 500 CE/AD.Thus it is different from the Triune God of Trinitarian Christianity, God as three persons, three minds, co-equal and co-eternal, one in essence, nature, power, action, and will. ...


4

The term the Nicene Creed uses for substance is homooúsios. This term was intentionally chosen to separate the Creed from various forms of Arianism that denied the divinity of Jesus. The Nicene Creed is arguing that Jesus is fully divine just like the Father. The common forms of nontrinitarianism at the time commonly denied the divinity of Christ by arguing ...


4

Paul Edwards, in his book "Our Legacy of Faith: a brief history of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (RLDS)" (Herald Publishing House, 1991) indicates that the transition to belief in standard American trinitarianism occurred gradually towards the turn of the 20th century, and that the transition was complete by 1890: In 1878 the ...


4

Trinitarians deal with this text in two ways: The source of the revelation is God the Father, and Jesus is the mediator of that revelation to man. Some particularly emphasize the human nature of Jesus in this respect. That the "him" actually refers to John, the author of the book, not Jesus Jesus as Mediator The vast majority of trinitarians who comment ...


4

Mitch's answer provides an excellent summary of Barth's views on the issue of the English word "person," as well as a helpful quote from Barth's Christian Dogmatics. To supplement that, I'll reference theologians who have analyzed Barth's argument and dealt with this question. Criticism Barth's foremost critic from the conservative side was Cornelius van ...


4

Yes. In fact, one of Barth's lasting contributions was a recovery of the doctrine of the Trinity as central for theology, in reaction to German liberalism's denial or, at best, sidelining of the topic (Schleiermacher's The Christian Faith is a prime example of this—in an 800 page systematic theology, the Trinity only merits 14 pages tagged on at the end). ...


4

St. Thomas Aquinas addresses your questions in his Summa Theologica I q. 42 ("Of Equality and Likeness among the Divine Persons"). Specifically, regarding your first question, see ibid. a. 6 obj. 2:Objection 2: Further, greater is the power of him who commands and teaches than of him who obeys and hears. But the Father commands the Son according to Jn. ...


3

According to this syllogism, she is the Mother of God, not just the Mother of the Son of God: The Son of God is God. (1 Jn. 5:20) Mary is the mother of the Son of God. (Mat. 1:18) Ergo, Mary is the Mother of God. Mary does not precede God, since nothing precedes Him; He is the Alpha, the First. Christ's humanity was created in Mary's womb; God is ...


3

Among church fathers, Ambrose is one supporter: Abraham, who was glad to receive strangers, faithful to God and tireless in his service and prompt in fulfilling his duty, saw the Trinity typified. He added religious devotion to hospitality, for although he beheld three, he adored one, and while keeping a distinction of the persons, yet he called one ...


3

The phrase “God of God” means that a person came from a person ( like an offspring from a parent) and that they are of same nature. It is analogous to the phrase “Human of Human,” That is, a human offspring of a human parent. To beget is to produce someone to have one’s nature. Seth is begotten of Adam. Seth and Adam are of same nature. A human person ...


3

Anselm of Canterbury attempts to do exactly this in his Monologion, an 11th century work that attempts to logically deduce God's existence and attributes without the use of Scripture. Overview in Proslogion Anselm's later and better-known work, Proslogion, provides a helpful summary: after establishing the existence of God through the ontological argument ...


3

It's easy to find individuals who deny salvation to non-Trinitarians: Are Non-Trinitarians saved? I always wondered this since they deny the true nature of God. Jehovahs witnesses and Mormons do not have the same Christ as the Bible but only God can judge. No. Anyone denying The Creator as He has revealed Himself, Triune, will ...


3

The first thing to keep in mind is that in the Old Testament, doctrine of the Holy Trinity is not at all explicit. The passage in Genesis 1:26 is frequently interpreted as a prefiguration of the Holy Trinity, but it would be a mistake to say that the human author of Genesis is affirming anything about the Divine Persons. Similarly, it would be a mistake to ...


3

(As always a draft). The key word that I will try to portray is a model. But first some definitions when dealing with the Trinity. It is necessary to point out the difference between the essential Trinity and the economical Trinity. The essential Trinity is a matter of the essence of the Triune God for His eternal existence; the economical Trinity is a ...


3

John 14 (NIV) says this: Then Judas (not Judas Iscariot) said, “But, Lord, why do you intend to show yourself to us and not to the world?” 23 Jesus replied, “Anyone who loves me will obey my teaching. My Father will love them, and we will come to them and make our home with them. 24 Anyone who does not love me will not obey my teaching. These ...



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