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16

This question is complicated, of course, by the fact that we must work with translations of the original texts in order to find this wording. However, at least three second-century authors use this phrasing when translated into English: Justin Martyr, Athenagoras of Athens, and Clement of Alexandria. Justin Martyr (100–165) writes, in Dialogue with ...


11

Yes. I have been able to find two letters, one related to the calling of the Council of Nicea and the other related to the judgment of the Council of Constantinople, where the word "persons" is used to describe the relations within the Godhead. Council of Nicea (325) First, some background. Alexander of Alexandria's conflict with Arius was the impetus for ...


11

Here are four common defenses of this doctrine: The masculine pronoun in Greek is applied to the Holy Spirit even when not required by Greek grammar The Holy Spirit is shown to be in a coordinating relationship with other persons, such as the Father and Son, as well as humans, suggesting that he also is a Person The Holy Spirit has personal attributes and ...


10

From a Trinitarian standpoint there is nothing to reconcile. As with most things, the answer is found in the context. The whole of John 1:18 reads: "No one has seen God at any time; the only begotten God who is in the bosom of the Father, He has explained Him." (NASB) The person John refers to here is the same one Jesus exclaims in John 6:46: "Not that ...


9

For the Catholic Church and other Nicene churches (the Eastern Orthodox, the Oriental Orthodox, the Armenian Orthodox, the Assyrians; as well as the majority of Protestants), the divine name YHWH (which is closely linked to the expression “I am” or “I Am Who I Am” (see Ex. 3:14), applies to God in His divine nature—hence to all three Persons of the Trinity. ...


7

I believe that the answer to this is something related to the narrative's approach. We can infer from what we know about the godhead, that the Son loves the Father, but the focus in the gospels narrative is not that, the focus is that the Father loves the Son, then, the Son loves us and the Son obey the Father. I'll try to examplify this with some text. ...


6

In reality, John 15:26 supports both the Eastern Orthodox and the (Western) Catholic positions, because (at least as far as the Catholic Church is concerned) both positions are valid and complementary. (Note that Eastern Catholics—those who follow the same rites as the Eastern Orthodox but are in communion with the Bishop of Rome—continue to favor the Greek ...


6

Both God the Father and the Holy Spirit are spirits. For example, catholic.com states, ... verses, such as John 4:24, where Jesus teaches us: "God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth." This means God has no body, because a spirit is, by nature, an incorporeal being. The Church Fathers, of course, agreed, and ...


6

To R. C. Sproul and many other Christians, the word essence is a near-synonym of being or substance in a philosophical sense. It is the English word that he feels best conveys the meaning of the word that the Greeks used when describing unchangeable, ultimate reality: ousios (the present participle of the Greek verb "to be"). Sproul adopts a Platonic ...


6

From a Swedenborgian perspective, there is a simple answer and a complex answer to this question. The Simple Answer The simple answer does not require the theology of Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772) at all. It only requires common human experience: Jesus was talking to himself. People often talk to themselves. Sometimes they even do it out loud! I doubt ...


5

The short answer to the O.P.’s question that their will proceeds from the Divine Nature. There is only one Divine Will, and each Person wills with the very same Will. It is misleading to say that the Persons “share” the Divine Will, because that would seem to imply that its use is “distributed” among the Persons—like when people share a sandwich. In fact, ...


5

It's actually a pretty simple explanation within ontological Trinitarianism, understanding two basic facts about Trinitarianism: "God" undifferentiated in scripture typically refers to the Father, as the head of the Trinity. The person of the Father is the hypostasis associated with the origination of the divine will. Jesus, as the divine Logos and Son ...


4

Trinitarians deal with this text in two ways: The source of the revelation is God the Father, and Jesus is the mediator of that revelation to man. Some particularly emphasize the human nature of Jesus in this respect. That the "him" actually refers to John, the author of the book, not Jesus Jesus as Mediator The vast majority of trinitarians who comment ...


4

Paul Edwards, in his book "Our Legacy of Faith: a brief history of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (RLDS)" (Herald Publishing House, 1991) indicates that the transition to belief in standard American trinitarianism occurred gradually towards the turn of the 20th century, and that the transition was complete by 1890: In 1878 the ...


4

Mitch's answer provides an excellent summary of Barth's views on the issue of the English word "person," as well as a helpful quote from Barth's Christian Dogmatics. To supplement that, I'll reference theologians who have analyzed Barth's argument and dealt with this question. Criticism Barth's foremost critic from the conservative side was Cornelius van ...


4

(As always a draft). The key word that I will try to portray is a model. But first some definitions when dealing with the Trinity. It is necessary to point out the difference between the essential Trinity and the economical Trinity. The essential Trinity is a matter of the essence of the Triune God for His eternal existence; the economical Trinity is a ...


4

St. Thomas Aquinas addresses your questions in his Summa Theologica I q. 42 ("Of Equality and Likeness among the Divine Persons"). Specifically, regarding your first question, see ibid. a. 6 obj. 2:Objection 2: Further, greater is the power of him who commands and teaches than of him who obeys and hears. But the Father commands the Son according to Jn. ...


4

Yes. The divine name applies to each of the persons of the Trinity. Matthew 28:19 is explicit that the name of the Trinity is one and the same. Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, Matthew 28:19 (ESV) The name of God tells us about God's very being ...


4

The earliest use of οὐσία to mean the substance or essence of a thing is by Aristotle in his Κατηγορίαι, though Aristotle attributes its earlier use to Plato. Justin Martyr comments on Aristotle's description of the nature of the Divine, confirming that Aristotle (along with Plato) uses the word in the manner described as early as the 4th century BC. So it ...


3

The first thing to keep in mind is that in the Old Testament, doctrine of the Holy Trinity is not at all explicit. The passage in Genesis 1:26 is frequently interpreted as a prefiguration of the Holy Trinity, but it would be a mistake to say that the human author of Genesis is affirming anything about the Divine Persons. Similarly, it would be a mistake to ...


3

Anselm of Canterbury attempts to do exactly this in his Monologion, an 11th century work that attempts to logically deduce God's existence and attributes without the use of Scripture. Overview in Proslogion Anselm's later and better-known work, Proslogion, provides a helpful summary: after establishing the existence of God through the ontological argument ...


3

It's easy to find individuals who deny salvation to non-Trinitarians: Are Non-Trinitarians saved? I always wondered this since they deny the true nature of God. Jehovahs witnesses and Mormons do not have the same Christ as the Bible but only God can judge. No. Anyone denying The Creator as He has revealed Himself, Triune, will ...


3

Among church fathers, Ambrose is one supporter: Abraham, who was glad to receive strangers, faithful to God and tireless in his service and prompt in fulfilling his duty, saw the Trinity typified. He added religious devotion to hospitality, for although he beheld three, he adored one, and while keeping a distinction of the persons, yet he called one ...


3

According to this syllogism, she is the Mother of God, not just the Mother of the Son of God: The Son of God is God. (1 Jn. 5:20) Mary is the mother of the Son of God. (Mat. 1:18) Ergo, Mary is the Mother of God. Mary does not precede God, since nothing precedes Him; He is the Alpha, the First. Christ's humanity was created in Mary's womb; God is ...


3

John 14 (NIV) says this: Then Judas (not Judas Iscariot) said, “But, Lord, why do you intend to show yourself to us and not to the world?” 23 Jesus replied, “Anyone who loves me will obey my teaching. My Father will love them, and we will come to them and make our home with them. 24 Anyone who does not love me will not obey my teaching. These ...


3

Modern-day Judaism, which is a different religion compared to Judaism before Christ, is based on the Talmud, which they consider a sacred text at least on the level of the Torah (the 1st 5 books of the Bible). Islam is essentially a heretical sect of Christianity founded by Muhammad, who assembled tho Koran from corrupted texts of Christian Holy Scriptures. ...


3

Jesus said to a Samaritan women: Our fathers worshipped in this mountain; and ye say, that in Jerusalem is the place where men ought to worship. Jesus saith unto her, Woman, believe me, the hour cometh, when ye shall neither in this mountain, nor yet at Jerusalem, worship the Father. Ye worship ye know not what: we know what we worship: for salvation is ...


3

In creatures, relations are extrinsic to the essence of the creature. For example, my essence* is humanness, but my relation to my father, mother, wife, friends, or even to God is not humanness; it's not my essence. However, in the Holy Trinity, the Divine Relations are the essence of God Himself. This is a consequence of the Trinity being supremely simple. ...


2

That God is simple (and hence, not composed of parts) is a dogma of the Catholic faith defined at the Fourth Lateran Council in November 1215: "We firmly believe and simply confess that there is only one true God, eternal and immeasurable, almighty, unchangeable, incomprehensible and ineffable, Father, Son and holy Spirit, three persons but one ...


2

What a great question! I just want to contribute one other thought. Partialism is kind of a theological impossibility, thus it doesn't need to be expressly condemned because a theologian should never get there in the fist place. Here is what I mean: An orthodox confession would include the proclamation that God is Spirit (John 4:24). Spirit can't be ...



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