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11

Why did Luther curse those who oppose indulgences? Firstly, he did not curse those who opposed indulgences. He himself was against indulgences. He wrote the 95 theses because of the sale of indulgences: Luther, aflame with indignation, challenged the sale of indulgences and demanded that the entire matter be discussed by the scholars of the University. ...


10

I can only speak for Calvin. AFAIK, he never explicitly interacts with Aquinas or the Summa. In Institutes he does reference "The Schoolmen" many times, but he seems to have in mind mostly later-medieval theologians rather than the angelic doctor himself. That's a shame, because Aquinas would have been a much more worthy opponent. Protestants in general ...


10

Luther saw the church becoming significantly corrupted much earlier than we might think. Generally I would say that Luther perceived a split between the 'real' church and the 'false church' basically around the time of St. Augustine, for he always separated the ritualistic ecclesiastical doctrine of religion, from the Augustinian spiritual doctrine of ...


9

This was a common image from at least the eleventh century onwards, but it did not always mean the same thing. In particular, Calvin is taking the least favourable possible meaning, out of all those ever used by his opponents. I will now explain everything in tediously footnoted detail. The root image of the wax nose comes from the use of wax to make ...


8

A more ecumenical answer: They weren't considered equal because they had been considered of dubious origin for quite some time. Back when the Vulgate was being put together Jerome made the points that The original Hebrew for those texts could no longer be found* Jews of the late first century onward did not consider them canonical. Others in the Church ...


8

Book IV of Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion deals with many objections to the practices of the Catholic Chruch, frequently with rather harsh language. The claim that the Roman church is the only church (Chap II.2) The communion as practiced by Catholics is idolatry: "The foulest sacrilege has been introduced in the place of the Lord's Supper." ...


7

Restorationist movements imagine themselves to be "restoring" a more pristine form of Christianity, while reformed movements have their roots in the Protestant Reformation. A good example of a restorationist church are the so-called Stone-Campbell churches that had their beginnings on the American frontier and now refer to themselves as the "Restoration ...


6

Abstract Protestants do perform many of the rites that the Catholic church considers Sacraments, but only two, Baptism and Communion, are considered Sacraments by the majority of Protestants. These two are the only two rites that are conducted using the formula given to us by Jesus. Luther, as is usual, took the first step: We have now finished the ...


6

I found this Wikipedia article on the Counter-Reformation. Which is apparently a useful phrase to Google for, if you want more information. Summary of the link: The biggest responses of the Catholic church to the Reformation were: The Council of Trent, which was "a commission of cardinals tasked with institutional reform, addressing contentious issues ...


6

The closest I can find to an answer to this question is in the final paragraph of this article, which says: More was beatified by Pope Leo XIII in 1886, along with other English martyrs, and canonized in 1935. Had he never met death for the faith he still would have been a candidate for canonization as a confessor. From first to last his life was ...


6

This subject is all about balance. Rationalism and Mysticism are the extremes to avoid. Your question does not seem biased to either extreme. I do not think you will find reformers making direct attacks upon particular forms of meditation so long as those meditating, mediated on those objective doctrines that they taught! The moment any type of mysticism ...


6

Martin Luther did not condemn pilgramages as much as serveral other practices but his loathing of pilgramages is quite clear in his writings. As with many things in the reformation, Luther's earlier writings moderatly condemn the practice and then his comments tend to become more severe as the reformation matured. Early in the reformation, Luther attributed ...


6

Martin Luther disliked James, in particular, for its emphasis on works. He called it his "epistle of straw." That said, there is simply not a mechanism for removing anything from the canon in Christian circles. The canon is simply the consensus on what is best. The marks of canonicity are settled, insofaras there is basically consensus. (Okay, there is ...


5

To reform is to change what already is there, and to restore is to return to its original state. It probably depends which congregation within Christianity you're asking. Some protestants may consider themselves restorationists, and others reformational. Other Christians use the term and eschew the "Protestant" label. For example, Latter-day Saints ...


5

You need to understand the vernacular of the day. Documentation took hard line tones that would never be acceptable in today's culture. Luther in particular used much stronger wording than even many of his contemporaries. This included every detail of his daily life, not just special documents such as his 95 Theses. Luther said and believed some pretty ...


5

There are two additional reasons for More's canonization. The first reason is that the Vatican wished to support English Roman Catholics over against the Church of England. Anglican-RC relations at this time were very frosty; and because More had defended papal (as against royal) supremacy in the church, and died for his conviction, he qualified as a martyr. ...


4

James Dolezol, a recent doctoral graduate of Westminster Seminary in Philadelphia, has written a book (which was his dissertation) on divine simplicity in which he traces the agreement of Reformed scholasticism to Thomist scholasticism on the doctrine of God. I have not yet read this book, but I was told about it by a friend of Dolezol's, and I listened to ...


4

The closest thing you'll find is the Council of Trent, the catechism which resulted from it and the structural reforms shortly thereafter. But, for the most part, those addressed what were considered abuses within the Church and not the criticisms of the reformers. To be honest, it is relatively normal for breakaway groups to indulge in fairly vehement ...


4

The only response I know of it the counter-reformation amount the Catholics : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Counter-Reformation. period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War, 1648 which is sometimes considered a response to the Protestant Reformation. The Counter-Reformation ...


3

It seems that your question is a settled part of Church History, from David Calhoun's document on this subject, entitled  Reformation & Modern Church History: Knox said women should not rule over men. That was a kind of call for revolution. People could read between the lines and realize that what John Knox really wanted was for men in the two ...


3

I'm not sure if this is precisely what you are looking for, but your question immediately reminded me of Augustine's City of God: Chapter 35.—Of the Sons of the Church Who are Hidden Among the Wicked, and of False Christians Within the Church. Let these and similar answers (if any fuller and fitter answers can be found) be given to their enemies by ...


3

Catholic Professor Geoffrey Saint-Clair, from Catholic Dossier Magazine (September/October 2001), writes: Success or failure often depends on leadership—what leaders do or fail to do. When it comes to the Reformation, the lion’s share of the blame rests squarely with the hierarchy, including the papacy. Or at least so said Pope Adrian VI, who in 1523 sent ...


3

Catholics argue that More was not guilty of the torture that he was accused of. In this article, scroll down to the "Smear Campaign" section that speaks about it. My understanding is that most of the surviving historical records of the time, were written by More's enemies (and executioners) who would have been very much slanted in their accounts, dubious ...


3

I have lead a middle school (6th, 7th, and 8th grade) Catholic religious education class for three years and this question often comes up: What's the difference between Christians and Catholics? My friends say they are Christian, but I thought we were too. What's the difference? The reason for their question is because their friends simply say they are ...


2

I think Andrew has laid out a fantastic outline for the general scope of the Church's development. To note, when you start to drill down past the overview above, you might cite "We believe in One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic church" in the Nicene Creed and begin teaching about splits from the Church beginning with the East-West Schism in the Church, then ...


2

I don't think the reformation really had any effect on Church doctrine, except for defining private interpretation more concretely as the heresy that it is. It had relatively no effect on parish life until relatively recently (with the exception of those tossed out of church steeples during the 30 years war and in honor of it). As a Catholic I can point ...


2

One reason could be because he was "martyred": he steadfastly refused to take the oath of supremacy of the Crown in the relationship between the Kingdom and the Church in England. Holding fast to the ancient teaching of Papal supremacy, More refused to take the oath and furthermore publicly refused to uphold Henry's annulment from Catherine. John Fisher, ...



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