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Instances of popes being involuntarily deposed by conquering sovereigns and replaced with one sympathetic to that conqueror. A specific example is need to answer this question. Instances of contention over the papacy by two or even three popes simultaneously, accompanied by multiple colleges of cardinals and bishoprics. Ah, the Great Schism. At ...


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Peter Turner's answer refers to the encyclical Humanum Genus of Pope Leo XIII, written in 1884. This document reviewed actions taken and documents written by previous popes, and repeated the condemnation of Freemasonry, not only in its own right but with respect to its response to these previous papal actions. It confirmed prior Church documents condemning ...


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Pope Leo XIII is your man. He definitely didn't like the Freemasons, and with good reason if you read the document, seems like they're not as benign a force in Italy as they seem over here . We wish it to be your rule first of all to tear away the mask from Freemasonry, and to let it be seen as it really is; and by sermons and pastoral letters to ...


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On the cover of Evangelii Gaudium it has the further description "Apostolic Exhortation on the Proclamation of the Gospel in today's world". Inside on the publishing page it says an "Encyclical Letter of Pope Francis Evangelii Gaudium". An exhortation is what it is FOR. An encyclical is what it IS.


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Apostolic succession and Papal succession are not one and the same. Is the nature of apostolic succession meant to be an unbroken succession of valid popes? No. Rather the nature of apostolic succession is meant to be an unbroken succession of valid bishops. Not just the pope, but all Catholic bishops have unbroken apostolic succession. In other words, ...


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Here's what the First Vatican Council says regarding the perpetuity of the Petrine office (ch. 2 "On the Perpetuity of the Primacy of blessed Peter in the Roman Pontiffs"): That which the Prince of Shepherds and great Shepherd of the sheep, Jesus Christ our Lord, established in the person of the blessed Apostle Peter to secure the perpetual welfare and ...



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