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In the case of a disputed election, the decision is largely based on which pope is elected first, although this is not always the case. Eulalius was elected pope in 418, one day before Boniface I. However, through overconfidence, Eulalius flouted an imperial order and the emperor then recognised Boniface as the rightful pope, leaving Eulalius as antipope. So,...


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Concordats in the sense of a "treaty" were prominent in Pope Pius XI's papacy (cf. the Lateran Treaty) and in Pope Pius XII's also (Pope Pius XII was Pope Pius XI's secretary of state). See this list of concordats. Also, there are some good books on the Catholic Church and State doctrine: Catholic Church and Christian State: A Series of Essays on the ...


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Pope Honorius I served from 625 to 638 when the Church was still undivided. At that time there was no doctrine within the Church of Papal infallibility and the Pope's place with respect to the other Patriarchs was understood to be first in honor, but he had no authority over any bishop outside the jurisdiction of the Roman See. These things were innovations ...



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