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In the case of a disputed election, the decision is largely based on which pope is elected first, although this is not always the case. Eulalius was elected pope in 418, one day before Boniface I. However, through overconfidence, Eulalius flouted an imperial order and the emperor then recognised Boniface as the rightful pope, leaving Eulalius as antipope. So,...


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Conditions for a valid pope male Catholic (not a heretic*) valid election *See Pope Paul IV's bull (encyclical) Cum ex apostolatus officio on how a heretical papal candidate would be invalidly elected. Who can judge the validity of a pope? Only a valid Pope is the supreme judge: Can. 1442 The Roman Pontiff is the supreme judge for the entire ...


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Pope Honorius I served from 625 to 638 when the Church was still undivided. At that time there was no doctrine within the Church of Papal infallibility and the Pope's place with respect to the other Patriarchs was understood to be first in honor, but he had no authority over any bishop outside the jurisdiction of the Roman See. These things were innovations ...


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Concordats in the sense of a "treaty" were prominent in Pope Pius XI's papacy (cf. the Lateran Treaty) and in Pope Pius XII's also (Pope Pius XII was Pope Pius XI's secretary of state). See this list of concordats. Also, there are some good books on the Catholic Church and State doctrine: Catholic Church and Christian State: A Series of Essays on the ...


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Whether valid popes have been heretics It isn't necessarily true that Pope Honorius I was a heretic. St. Robert Cardinal Bellarmine, the great doctor of the papacy, defended several popes, including Pope Honorius I, against accusations of heresy in his work that is translated into English as Papal Error?: A Defense of Popes said to have Erred in Fatih (ch. ...


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Found it in this question: What exactly did Pope Gregory the Great mean by “Universal Bishop?” Pope St. Gregory the Great, 6th century, from his epistles.



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