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Apostolic succession and Papal succession are not one and the same. Is the nature of apostolic succession meant to be an unbroken succession of valid popes? No. Rather the nature of apostolic succession is meant to be an unbroken succession of valid bishops. Not just the pope, but all Catholic bishops have unbroken apostolic succession. In other words, ...


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Peter Turner's answer refers to the encyclical Humanum Genus of Pope Leo XIII, written in 1884. This document reviewed actions taken and documents written by previous popes, and repeated the condemnation of Freemasonry, not only in its own right but with respect to its response to these previous papal actions. It confirmed prior Church documents condemning ...


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Pope Leo XIII is your man. He definitely didn't like the Freemasons, and with good reason if you read the document, seems like they're not as benign a force in Italy as they seem over here . We wish it to be your rule first of all to tear away the mask from Freemasonry, and to let it be seen as it really is; and by sermons and pastoral letters to ...


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On the cover of Evangelii Gaudium it has the further description "Apostolic Exhortation on the Proclamation of the Gospel in today's world". Inside on the publishing page it says an "Encyclical Letter of Pope Francis Evangelii Gaudium". An exhortation is what it is FOR. An encyclical is what it IS.



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