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Consubstantiation (also called impanation) says that, after consecration, bread remains and Christ becomes present within, among, or "along-side" the bread. Transubstantiation says no bread remains after consecration; the substance of bread no longer exists, having been replaced by the substance of Christ.


6

I generally write from a reformed perspective, but I don't think there's anything in this post that other Christians (Oriental Orthodox and Church of the East aside) would disagree with. The doctrine was first formulated clearly by the Council of Chalcedon: One and the same Son, the Self-same Perfect in Godhead, the Self-same Perfect in Manhood; truly ...


5

No, the Catholic understanding of justification not occurring by grace alone has not changed. The 1999 Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification has not created any new doctrine, but restates Catholic doctrine on this point. The Canons of the Sixth Session of the Council of Trent include, among others, the following statements: CANON I. If any ...


5

According to this article: Has Martin Luther's "Snow-Covered Dunghill" Mystery-Legend Been Solved?! the answer to the question is, "No, he did not say that, but it sounds like something he would have said." Luther said: Conceived in sorrow and corruption, the child sins in his mother’s womb. As he grows older, the innate element of corruption ...


4

The Lutheran understanding of the Real Presence is that at the consecration, which happens through the power of the Holy Spirit, the bread and wine become the true body and blood of Christ "in, with, and under" the form and substance of bread. "In, with, and under" is the description of the Real Presence in Luther's Smaller Chatechism. I was taught that this ...


4

I am a WELS Lutheran. The idea that we refuse to pray with other Christians is a carricature of us. It is not totally accurate. My pastor says that public prayer is always off limits but private prayer is something that requires a bit of discretion. I have a good example of something that happened in our church. The parocial school that is attached to ...


4

Paul Kretzmann, the son of a Lutheran pastor, wrote his Popular Commentary of the Bible, which "has been a favorite among confessional Lutherans since publication of the first volume in 1921." In his comments on Hebrews 6, he called attention to the characteristics of the one who is spoken of in the passage: they were once enlightened, tasted of the ...


3

At least one scholar would say, this was the inherent message of Christianity, from the very beginning. In Paul Among the People: The Apostle Reinterpreted and Reimagined in His Own Time, Sarah Ruden seeks to compare Paul's writings with that of the culture in which he lived. Over and over again, her project is to show how remarkably liberal Paul is when it ...


3

The guideline for discipline of clergy can be found here: http://download.elca.org/ELCA%20Resource%20Repository/Discipline_Process.pdf The above disciplinary process is intended for rostered leaders, including associates in ministry, ordained clergy, diaconal ministers, deaconesses, etc. Considering the complexity of the twofold rule of God theology, it is ...


3

The Reformed and Lutheran theologians of the late 16th and 17th centuries are often termed "Protestant Scholastics." Why? Because they took over the methodology of the Medieval Scholastics and produced vast systematic theologies. Concordia Publishing House is currently publishing one example of this, Johann Gerhard's 16 volume systematic theology. The ...


3

Matins and Vespers are prayer services prescribed for the morning and evening respectively, and the terms generally refer to services with particular orders of worship laid down in various hymnals used by the Lutheran denominations. However, while "matins" is an order of worship established for use in the morning, there are some congregations, and some ...


2

I think the answer can be found in the article you have linked. On Page 129 for example, there's a description of how Luther broke up the unity of the eucharistic prayer: Luther's recension of the Canon of the Mass is more controversial. How much Luther can be held responsible for breaking up the unity of the eucharistic prayer and how much late ...


2

Lutherans believe that God elects to salvation, but not to damnation. That is to say, we believe that our salvation is due to God's election on account of His grace and mercy for the sake of Christ (i.e. God chooses us because He is merciful, not because we've done something to earn it or because He sees that we will do something to merit salvation). See, ...


2

According to Report G2009-2 of the 2009 Synod of the Church of Sweden, In Official Communication KsSkr 2009:6, the Church [of Sweden] Board notes that in the Lutheran tradition, marriage is a part of the secular order and has nothing to do with salvation. (p. 10) This would seem to suggest that the Church of Sweden considers that no "biblical basis" ...


2

Martin Luther once participated in a debate with Ulrich Zwingli’s over whether the Lords Supper was actually the body of Christ or simply a remembrance of it. It is reported that Martin Luther walked into the debate, went up to the board and took a piece of chalk and wrote “This Is my Body” then left the debate without looking back. The translation of the ...


2

The Augustinian tradition, going back to the early anti-Pelagian writing On Nature and Grace, distinguishes between the human nature and the defect of original sin. We have a defective nature, therefore, and that is what we pass on to our children, but Christ is still consubstantial with us even though He was always without sin. Sin is not part of human ...


1

Jesus said it best in Matthew 4:4 (KJV) But he answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God. John 6:48 (KJV) I am that bread of life. And because Jesus is that bread of life, the commandment that was given in order to grow spiritually can be found in various ...


1

Most Christians believe that it is acceptable and even good to pray to God to supply the necessities and amenities of life. That is reflected in your quote from Luther's Small Catechism. And yet, Jesus' words often have more than one meaning. The whole sequence in John 6:22-71 makes it clear that in associating bread with his flesh, Jesus was speaking ...


1

JUSTIFICATION: BEING DECLARED RIGHTEOUS Think of justification as a legal term, which is--in a sense--what it is. God, the judge of all humankind, has every right to demand satisfaction for our having broken his laws. We are culpable, each one of us, and as the Scripture says, "Behold, all souls are mine; as the soul of the father, so also the soul ...


1

Since the Rosicrucian manifestos were the first anybody knew of the Rosicrucian movement, and they weren't published until after Martin Luther was dead several decades, it's far more probable that the Rosicrucian movement took its symbolism from Luther, not the other way around.


1

What influence does pietism have on modern-day Lutheranisms? The answer to this relies on the meaning of "influence" as well as the definition of "pietism". If one takes a narrow view of pietism as a movement started by Philipp Jakob Spener, then his attempt to reform Lutheran practice has pretty much died out. However if one defines pietism as the desire ...


1

Normally I would not answer this question since you ask about the Catholic and Lutheran denominations. However, in my Bible study I have over 16 Bibles to reference and every one of them has this verse: Matthew 18:14 (Douay Rheims version) Even so it is not the will of your Father, who is in heaven, that one of these little ones should perish. We all ...


1

I think it's important to remember that one can disagree with their brothers and sisters in Christ about things that are not essential to the faith. For instance, there will be disagreements amongst Christians about whether baptism should be full immersion, or simply a sprinkling of water. This is not essential to the faith, meaning this does not determine ...


1

At the time of the reformation, many of the bishops of the Church of England, including the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cramner, were already recognized as consecrated bishops by the Roman church since they had been consecrated prior to the reformation. Apostolic succession in the Anglican communion is traced through these bishops. The the Churches of ...


1

I speak from a Lutheran perspective. In our confession we say this - AC II.1. 1] Also they teach that since the fall of Adam all men begotten in the natural way are born with sin, that is, without the fear of God, without trust in God, and with 2] concupiscence; and that this disease, or vice of origin, is truly sin, even now condemning and bringing eternal ...



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