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No, the Catholic understanding of justification not occurring by grace alone has not changed. The 1999 Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification has not created any new doctrine, but restates Catholic doctrine on this point. The Canons of the Sixth Session of the Council of Trent include, among others, the following statements: CANON I. If any ...


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The question touches on a problem: the analogy between human justice and divine justice has its limits. Under human justice, each crime is associated with a proportional punishment. When the punishment (jail time, fine paid, restitution made, privileges in society revoked) is complete, then the crime has been paid for. We assume that people are capable of ...


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JUSTIFICATION: BEING DECLARED RIGHTEOUS Think of justification as a legal term, which is--in a sense--what it is. God, the judge of all humankind, has every right to demand satisfaction for our having broken his laws. We are culpable, each one of us, and as the Scripture says, "Behold, all souls are mine; as the soul of the father, so also the soul ...


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Is salvation achieved by faith alone, or does it in fact require some works? Basically works are evidential as opposed to causative. The person who mentioned James chapter two brings up an important comparison. The subject being discussed in Matthew is mistaken assurance of salvation. Even John the Baptist brought this up; Luke 3:8 Bring forth ...



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