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No, the Catholic understanding of justification not occurring by grace alone has not changed. The 1999 Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification has not created any new doctrine, but restates Catholic doctrine on this point. The Canons of the Sixth Session of the Council of Trent include, among others, the following statements: CANON I. If any ...


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This is certainly a challenging question. I'll rely on the writings of two prominent reformed theologians, Louis Berkhof and Charles Hodge, who are strong supporters of this doctrine. It's important to note, for reasons that will become clear, that they defend their position in the face of arguments made by opponents who believe in a just God. Those who ...


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It's interesting that this perspective is known as the the 'New Perspective on Paul', for the idea that works goes hand in hand with faith has been central to the Catholic and Orthodox Church which preceded the Reformed Church and its claim of sola fide. If you were to go to a Catholic or Orthodox Christian in the 12th century and claim that St. Paul thought ...


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The question touches on a problem: the analogy between human justice and divine justice has its limits. Under human justice, each crime is associated with a proportional punishment. When the punishment (jail time, fine paid, restitution made, privileges in society revoked) is complete, then the crime has been paid for. We assume that people are capable of ...


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JUSTIFICATION: BEING DECLARED RIGHTEOUS Think of justification as a legal term, which is--in a sense--what it is. God, the judge of all humankind, has every right to demand satisfaction for our having broken his laws. We are culpable, each one of us, and as the Scripture says, "Behold, all souls are mine; as the soul of the father, so also the soul ...



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