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The existing answer provides a learned and fascinating discussion for tracing the interpretative history of Isaiah 52:13-53:12 (often conveniently abbreviated to "Isaiah 53", the so-called "Fourth Servant Song") from roughly the 1st C. CE. Thus, the conclusion... We can ... be confident that first century converts to Christianity did not invent the idea ...


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First, it should be noted that even if Jews did not view the passage as Messianic before Jesus, that does not prove that it is a invalid interpretation. In Old Testament times, Biblical prophecies were often not recognized until they were fulfilled. That said, let's look at the evidence. Targum Jonathan ben Uziel The Targums are interpretative ...


6

The primary distinction which you will find among protestants regarding this matter will arise from the division between those adhering to Covenant Theology and those adhering to Dispensationalism. Under Covenant Theology, the members of the modern-day church are viewed as the true children of Israel. The promises made to Abraham regarding his descendants, ...


5

1.The Jewish and Islamic concept of God is the same: one God, one person, one mind.This is same in Talmud, a central text of Rabbinic Judaism written between 200 CE/AD- 500 CE/AD.Thus it is different from the Triune God of Trinitarian Christianity, God as three persons, three minds, co-equal and co-eternal, one in essence, nature, power, action, and will. ...


3

I believe the best way to approach this question is to start with the following verse Acts 23:8 (RSVCE) 8For the Sad′ducees say that there is no resurrection, nor angel, nor spirit; but the Pharisees acknowledge them all. Thus some Jews in Jesus' time believed in spirits. When one died, their soul went down to Sheol. All however, did not suffer the ...


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It seems that this question has two points. First, when Christians stopped to practice Jewish traditions. Second, when others stopped to think that they are a Jewish sect. Either part has a strict border. Regarding the first part, I would assume that this is related to the destruction of the Temple when many Christians left Palestine. This event also caused ...


2

A Catholic Understanding There are two parts to your question: Can one forgive another for a wrong they have not suffered personally? Can one forgive another if God has not forgiven them? One at a time. Can one forgive another for a wrong they have not suffered personally? If one hasn't suffered a wrong personally, it's not clear that there's anything ...


2

The Law, given to Moses on Mt. Sinai, was God's second work intended to make A People for Himself. The first work we know as God's creating man in His image, according to His likeness, in which thus the Word of God was in his heart as it was certainly of God's own heart. For Moses writes in Deuteronomy 30:14, But the word is very near you, in your mouth, ...


2

The Law of Moses was part of the Mosaic Covenant. This covenant was between God and Israel, but we should not assume that it would never end. In fact, God spoke to the Jewish people of a new covenant that He would establish. “Behold, days are coming,” declares the Lord, “when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of ...


2

Some people like to say that because the gods of Judaism, Christianity and Islam share a heritage then they're the same God. Other people point to the big doctrinal differences between them to say they're not the same. I have to go with the second group. It's kind of like the difference between The Republic of China and The People's Republic of China: both ...


2

The Catholic ought to start with NOSTRA AETATE DECLARATION ON THE RELATION OF THE CHURCH TO NON-CHRISTIAN RELIGIONS PROCLAIMED BY HIS HOLINESS POPE PAUL VI ON OCTOBER 28, 1965. In it Pope Paul VI states 3. The Church regards with esteem also the Moslems. They adore the one God, living and subsisting in Himself; merciful and all- powerful, the Creator ...


2

In fairness, it is probably best understood in the opposite direction. Technically, "the Way" - those Jewish followers of Jesus the Christ, were Jewish heretics. The story is better explained here: At what point did Judaism and Christianity diverge? For the continuing saga, you may find this useful: Was Catholicism the first denomination? It should be ...


2

Peter Turner's answer refers to the encyclical Humanum Genus of Pope Leo XIII, written in 1884. This document reviewed actions taken and documents written by previous popes, and repeated the condemnation of Freemasonry, not only in its own right but with respect to its response to these previous papal actions. It confirmed prior Church documents condemning ...


2

Pope Leo XIII is your man. He definitely didn't like the Freemasons, and with good reason if you read the document, seems like they're not as benign a force in Italy as they seem over here . We wish it to be your rule first of all to tear away the mask from Freemasonry, and to let it be seen as it really is; and by sermons and pastoral letters to ...


2

How did Christian movement distinguish itself from Judaism? Early Christians did not try to distinguish themselves as a movement. They had hopes that the rest of the Jews would accept Jesus as their Savior. Such attempts at "branding" are more consistent with modern marketing techniques. The early church was entirely made up of Jews. They were sort of ...


1

In 70 CE, Second Temple Judaism came to an abrupt and traumatic end, with the destruction of the Temple and the enslavement of many leading Jews. Randall Price says in The Secrets of the Dead Sea Scrolls, page 137 (citing Dr. Lawrence Schiffman): Second Temple Judaism can now be seen as a transition period in which the sectarianism and apocalypticism of ...


1

Strange as it may seem, there are people who hold this view currently, and in fact it was actually the doctrine of the Catholic church in the past (I hasten to add, they would not express their doctrine in those terms currently). Proponents of such a view assume (without sufficient evidence imho) two things: Christians are the covenant people of God - the ...


1

The Bible states that we are to "believe" in the Lord in order to have salvation. It is therefore extremely important what God says about himself sot that we can believe it. If we believe in something other than what God said he was, then we do not actually believe in Him. This is why the doctrine of the Trinity is so very important. As A.W. Tozer puts it ...


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The traditional Catholic Church says that Muslims worship devils not the true God. For all the gods of the Gentiles are devils: Psa 95:5 Pope Callixtus III: “I vow to… exalt the true Faith, and to extirpate the diabolical sect of the reprobate and faithless Mahomet [Islam] in the East.” Pope Eugene IV, Council of Basel, Session 19, Sept. ...


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The Nation of Israel at the time Jesus was preaching, was well versed in the Pentateuch, the Prophets and the Psalms, and from those books we find the following Scriptures: Deuteronomy 26:15 KJV Look down from thy holy habitation, from heaven, and bless thy people Israel, and the land which thou hast given us, as thou swarest unto our fathers, a land ...



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