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The Bible does not mention Peter as ever going to Rome, and there is no early Christian record of this being the case. Even at the end of the first century, the author of 1 Clement appears unaware that St. Peter ever came to Rome. Although written from Rome, 1 Clement mentions Peter's 'many labours' and makes a general comment about Peter's death, without ...


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We do not know what happened to the apostle John after the biblical account of his life ended. One of the New Testament gospels now bears his name as author, although it was anonymous until later in the second century, in which case he not only preached the gospel but wrote an account of the mission of Jesus. However, as John Carroll says in The Existential ...


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The most common response of conservative Christians is to attempt to refute the evidence of archaeology. 1 Kings 6:1 places the Exodus from Egypt approximately 1440 BCE, because this verse dates the Exodus 480 years before the fourth year of Solomon's reign, and the Bible dates this year of Solomon's reign at 960 BCE. This would place the Battle of Jericho ...


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Most historians choose to accept the existence of a person in ancient times if there is evidence that the person's contemporaries referred to him as existing. Thus, historians accept the historicity of Jesus because of the four gospel accounts of his life. Perhaps this consensus would now be weaker because of the accumulating evidence that Mark's Gospel was ...


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Biblical literalists and other Young Earth Creationists most often account for these facts by seeking to cast doubt on the careful research of historians and archaeologists. They may claim that the Egyptian, Hittite or Chinese cultures are not as old as the evidence seems to show. Written records exist in the context of archaeological records and one ought ...


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Rev John O'Brien wrote in The Faith of Millions that in the Middle Ages (1000's to renaissance) the Bible was chained in various churches so it would be accessible to the greatest number of people. He also says that St. Jerome, the Latin translator of the Vulgate (people's) Bible wrote words of encouragement that all should love and honor the Bible. ...


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Is this doctrine still believed today? The article published by Deseret News on June 18, 2010, clearly states that blood atonement is not a doctrine of the LDS Church. Although this statement is from 2010, I understand that many members and leaders did not believe or teach the doctrine long before that time. Some confusion over whether this teaching is ...


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It appears that the overwhelming Christian response to textual criticism is to draw back into the shell and become defensive, even critical of the critics, many of whom are, after all, Christians themselves. A defensive response can be self-defeating because it palpably fails every time the higher critic makes a credible statement about the Bible, until only ...


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This question appears to assume there really was an Exodus from Egypt, as described in the Book of Exodus, although it should be noted that the strong consensus of scholars is that the Exodus did not really occur as described in the Bible. There is no mention of Moses or the Exodus in Egyptian records, but we can use the Egyptian king list to identify a ...


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Rome is the holy city to western Christianity because it became the seat of the Pope. Even Protestants tend to defer to Rome as a holy city. However, Constantinople was regarded as the holy city of the Greek Orthodox Church because this was the seat of the Patriarch. In a similar style, the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem is known as the Patriarch of ...


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The most credible arguments against the existence of Nazareth at the beginning of the first century are that the earliest pottery remains found at the site date to the Roman period, possibly no earlier than the first century, and that Josephus never mentioned the town, although he listed almost every town and village in first-century Galilee. However, this ...


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The Mystery of the Temple's 'Molten Metals' Two recent apologists told the story, apparently independently, of molten gold seeping between the temple`s foundation stones during the Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE. Both implied the source was Josephus, but neither provided references. Unfortunately, both had theological motivations for adding these details to ...


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Tradition says that the gospels now known as Matthew, Mark, Luke and John were actually written by the persons whose names the gospels now bear. Of these, Matthew is thought to have been a tax collector and therefore literate, Luke was a physician and therefore literate. We know too little reliable information about Mark to say if he was literate, while it ...


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I think you've cross wired your history a little bit. The lower overall literacy rate at the time doesn't mean nobody was literate. It certainly doesn't follow that a hand picked set of men must be illiterate because a lower percentage of the population was educated. Not everybody was a fisherman, ond even those that were often had other backgrounds and ...



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