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Tertullian One early, clear indication of the doctrine of the personhood of the Holy Spirit appears in Tertullian's work, Against Praxeas, dated around AD 215,1 saying: [W]hile the mystery of the dispensation is still guarded, which distributes the Unity into a Trinity, placing in their order the three Persons— the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost: ...


8

One could perhaps say that the dogmatic definition of papal infallibility as expressed at Vatican I is the Church's formal way of dealing with this tension. The case of Pope Honorius has of course been debated for centuries and was brought up prior to Vatican I as an argument against papal infallibility. The old Catholic Encyclopedia has a helpful summary of ...


6

Writings Very early. At least as early as Justin Martyr, in The First Apology (~AD 150): For they proclaim our madness to consist in this, that we give to a crucified man a place second to the unchangeable and eternal God, the Creator of all; for they do not discern the mystery that is herein, to which, as we make it plain to you, we pray you to give ...


6

Historically, there have been four sources of theology: Scripture Tradition Reason Experience. This formulation goes back quite a ways. Scripture is always first, Tradition is always second, and reason and experience are a distant third and fourth. The fun comes in when one realizes that it is not possible to read Scripture without a tradition. As a ...


5

The Nestorians are a good example for the latter two councils. There were a few attendees from the non-Greek east, groups that would later be called Nestorians. There was at least two, Jacob of Nisibis and another bishop named John. The eastern church "officially" accepted Nicea in 410 at the council of Isaac though the Nestorian schism happened soon after. ...


5

The biggest thing about these councils specifically is the addition of God being three persons, which "persons" were to be included in the term "God", and the evolution of such. For example, the Apostle's Creed which pre-dates the first of these councils (Nicea) says nothing about God being more than one nor anything about multiple "persons" being "God". ...


4

A better summarization of your statement would be "Monophysitism and Nestorianism are heresy; the Chalcedonian position is orthodox. The heresies over-emphasize one of the natures, but the orthodox position stresses that both are fully present and effective." Obviously, "heresy" is a word that carries a strong connotation, but it does have an actual ...


4

Not many direct statements about the lack of canonization of those books were made during the specified time. But a few statements were made. The canon list in the Muratorian Fragment, dating to about 170, mentions the Shepherd of Hermas, saying that it "cannot be read publicly to the people in church" because "it is after [the apostles'] time": Hermas ...


4

When framed in terms of what can't be found in the Bible: Almost nothing can't be found in the Bible / You can find almost anything in the Bible. A wide variety of established beliefs are "Biblical" because, like most any non-technical document, it's vastly multi-interpretable. (And even technical language is multi-interpretable.) The creeds primarily ...


3

The simple answer is know your Bible. God has given us His Word to guide us. The church, being filled with sinful men, is going to err and has erred. But God's word is 'settled in the heavens', is perfect, is truth (John 17:17). So the primary source for truth must be God's words and not men's words. It is however difficult sometimes to go against the ...


3

God's unchanging nature is something fundamental in scripture, before there ever was a church council or New Testament tradition. It is not based on a Greek concept of perfection but a biblical concept of God. For I the Lord do not change (ESV, Malachi 3:6) To ask when it first showed up in church father writings would probably be the same as asking ...


2

The command to not eat meat with the blood in it has no relation to the coking of the meat. What that is referring to is the commandments from God to the Israelites after their rescue from Egypt. All Scriptures are quoted from the King James translation Genesis 9:4 But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat. ...


1

Nestorians don't believe in two wills and two subjects. Church of the East who has been mislabelled as Nestorians predominantly live in Syria, Iran, and India is a church from the Apostolic time who still exists today. They rejected all councils from Roman Empire region except Nicaea (325) and Constantinople (381). The confusion was caused because Nestorius ...


1

Quite early in Christian history the cross (without a human form on it) became a symbol of Christianity and appears to have become a superstitious symbol as well. Heathens recognized this seeming superstitious behavior, so that by the time of Tertullian heathen called Christians cross-worshippers. You are correct though, from what I can tell. It was not ...


1

The 2012 world-wide General Conference of the United Methodist Church is going on right now in Tampa, Florida, USA. This conference is held every 4 years to determine the guidelines and direction of the United Methodist Church. The only thing you can do as a common member is to pray that the delegates are guided by God and God's will, rather than the ...


1

This may not exactly answer your question, but perhaps the most significant presence at the first few councils which was eventually thrown out was the Nestorian church. We have lots of evidence that they existed, and in fact they were a major influence in the "Church of the East" until about 622 AD. Syria, Persia, and much of the East was Nestorian, prior ...



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