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17

Evangelicalism is not in itself a "confession". It is more of a general grouping of similar confessions. As such, it is a bit hard to pin down on a specific point of doctrine like your question calls for. That being said, we could paint with a broad brush and describe some of general leanings. Every one of these will be wrong for at least some Evangelicals. ...


17

This kinda falls into general reference territory. There are two major groups of "Orthodox" churches. The Eastern Orthodox Church is one large group of churches that share a common theology. It separated from the Catholic Church (or vice versa, depending on your POV) in 1054 AD. Thus many Orthodox Churches adopt a national title (e.g. Albanian ...


17

It seems to be down to an ambiguous instruction issued by Pope Innocent III around 1200. The Catholic Encyclopedia has this [extract]: [In the eleventh century] the manner of making [the sign of the Cross] in the West seems to have been identical with that followed at present in the East, i.e. only three fingers were used, and the hand traveled from the ...


15

As to the differences from a Catholic man's perspective: The metaphysical dispute over the Filioque, wherein is asked "whence comes The Holy Spirit"? A Catholic person says, when reciting the Nicene Creed, that The Holy Spirit "proceeds from The Father and The Son". Unofficially, this wording brings to mind the theory of procession put forth by St. ...


15

Prolegomenon There is an assumption that needs to be addressed before an answer can be given, namely that 'scripture' is the basis for practices and beliefs in the Eastern Orthodox Church. It is not. Scripture is a part of Holy Tradition (the preeminent portion indeed), but not everything comes from this. Most important is maintaining and passing on the ...


14

Preface, this is a Protestant response. I'm not arguing the validity of it, or any claims here, just answering the question. the short Protestant response would be "Meh". A general Protestant response to each point would be: 1) Where in Scripture does it say there would be any such thing as Apostolic succession? The New Testament speaks of several ...


13

Yes and no. In historical Christianity, the term for universal salvation is apocatastasis. Apocatastasis refers to the restoration of all things to their original state, which includes the notion of universal reconciliation (even going so far as to insist that Satan himself will eventually be reconciled to God). The word appears in Acts 3:21. "Repent ...


13

The differences are almost too great to list in an answer like this! The real problem in answering your question is that it isn't just a list of "things Roman Catholics believe" and "things Greek Orthodox believe". (NB that "Greek" Orthodox probably isn't accurate here: it's more accurate to talk in terms of "Eastern" Orthodox.) The problems are much more ...


12

There seems to be two interpretations of the meaning of the skull at the base of the cross, the first is more symbolic and the second is more historical: The skull represents Adam, the first man, along with original sin. Jesus was sent to Earth to absolve us of our sins through His death. Jesus' blood is washing away our sins by flowing across the skull of ...


12

Plus one for a decent, albeit unusual, question. After reading your question for the first time, I thought immediately of Jesus' words to his disciples in the context of His teaching on divorce: "'For there are eunuchs who were born that way from their mother's womb; and there are eunuchs who were made eunuchs by men; and there are also eunuchs who ...


10

The basic between the two is over the Christological definition accepted at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, where Christ was recognized as being worshiped both 'in' two natures that exist 'inconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably'. The Copts and other miaphysites believed that this definition was ambiguous and could be understood in a Nestorian ...


10

OK I'm finally getting around to answering this question. Unfortunately I'm limited on time so this is a summary of the Orthodox position. First of all, Orthodoxy's entire anthropology differs from Western Christianity (no original guilt/concupiscence). As such, their soteriology doesn't begin in the same place as Western Christianity and thus concludes ...


9

I can tell you of the Russian Orthodox Church. There is a Synodal Commission which examines the issue and has the authority to glorify the person as a saint. There are locally venerated saints, which are venerated in a eparchy, and commonly venerated saints, which are inserted to the calendar common to all the church. The eparchial veneration is ...


8

Different communities adopted Arabc at various times. The earliest community to start using Arabic were the Greek Orthodox of Palestine, who started translating the liturgy and theological books into Arabic in the 8th century. For a more general history of Arab Christianity, I'd consult The Church in the Shadow of the Mosque by Sidney Griffith. For evidence ...


8

Officially all the Eastern Orthodox Churches share "one Lord, one faith, one baptism," and this is manifested by intercommunion among, say, the sees of Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria, Rome (before the Schism, she received the highest honor among the sees at councils), Constantinople, Georgia, Kiev, Moscow, Athens, Washington DC, Paris, London, Tokyo, ...


8

Big question! Here is my source: The culture - The East is familiar to Greek, Russian and Arabic languages/cultures, and the West is more familiar to Americans and English languages/cultures The Clergy Vestments The Liturgy/Mass - The East primarily uses the Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom, and the West primarily uses the Liturgy of ...


8

The Reformed perspective Tim Challies (a well known reformed pastor in Toronto) gives an in depth opinion on Mere Christianity on his blog. Reading Classics - Mere Christianity by Tim Challies part I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII From the reformed view, Lewis does make the common errors with regard to free will and God's sovereignty, especially with regard ...


8

Yes, there are lots of examples! There are still professional Iconographers who go around painting Iconography for a living! In the Orthodox Church the Temples are traditionally fully covered in frescoes. Here is an example: Since this is a great part of the Orthodox Church, there are many people who have been trained in this Holy Art and are going around ...


8

Origen was a great teacher, but he also had some non-Orthodox positions on Scripture and the faith in general. His teachings were specifically anathemitized by the Second Council of Constantinople in 1553, which inherently means you can't be a saint, since you are condemned, at least according to the Roman Catholic Church. That said, he was also an ardent ...


7

As an Eastern Orthodox, I've never heard this line of reasoning. Instead, what is usually discussed is the difference between primacy and supremacy. In the Orthodox view, among all the bishops, there were five who were regarded as preeminent based on the importance of their sees. These were: Rome Constantinople Alexandria Antioch Jerusalem The ...


7

This is what Lewis has to say for himself in his introduction: I hope no reader will suppose that "mere" Christianity is here put forward as an alternative to the creeds of the existing communions—as if a man could adopt it in preference to Congregationalism or Greek Orthodoxy or anything else. It is more like a hall out of which doors open into ...


7

This site has a good overview of the history from a Catholic viewpoint. Here is a high level overview based on that site and the article on Wikipedia (which currently stands in question of its neutrality). After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the church headquartered at Constantinople began to have ongoing squabbles with Rome due in some part ...


7

I linked to this article in another question, but it's certainly relevant here: Luther Had His Chance Some Lutherans did make contact with Patriarch Jeremias II of Constantinople. They gave him a copy of the Augsburg Confession and requested his reaction. The Patriarch politely thanked them and, later, gave a detailed reply, indicating where the various ...


7

The oldest icon I can imagine would be the one written by St Luke of Our Lady holding the infant Jesus regardless of whether you give any merit to the tradition that it was indeed done by him who was undoubtably the most well aquatinted man in the early Church with the Blessed Virgin Mary, excepting maybe St John the Evangelist, it is certainly an old ...


7

I believe you are looking for the theology called "Universalism". I'm not sure that it has been explicitly declared a heresy, but the Catholic, Orthodox many Protestant churches have made formal declarations that are in disagreement with it, so they presumably do consider it a heresy. Look at the 'disagreements' section of the article.


7

As you are probably aware, there is not a high degree of unity in Eastern Orthodoxy in English-speaking nations, especially in North America (cf. Phyletism, autocephaly, controversy concerning autocephaly and the OCA, controversy over the broad appointment of metropolitans). However, there is somewhat general consensus on on the orders. But it should be ...


7

Most early Eastern theologians didn't believe in witches (technically, neither did Western theologians, as is evidenced by Canon Episopi), but most common folk did. Without getting into the confounded history of witch-burning, it is generally held that theologians prior to the 10th century did not believe in witches. The 9th century Canon Episopi that I ...


7

First things first, there are no 'denominations' within Orthodoxy. The Orthodox believe in one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church (as professed by the Nicene Creed), and they believe that the Orthodox Church is it. Therefore it would be inappropriate to speak of a doctrinal position of the Russian Orthodox that is not also true of other Orthodox. While ...


7

The commingling of states with Orthodoxy is a recent (19th century) historical phenomenon known as phyletism, and has to do with the rise of nationalism. This is why you see Macedonian, Greek, Russian, etc. Orthodox churches. Patrick J. Deneen explains how nationalism became a prominent ideology in western culture: “[There is] an impulse that can be ...


6

The Greek adjective orthodox (ὀρθόδοξος) is dated to the late third/early fourth centuries, and the derived Latin word (orthodoxus or ortodoxus) was also first used at about that time. There is an earlier verb ὀρθοδοξεῖν, meaning "to have correct beliefs", used by Aristotle in the Nicomachean Ethics. As far as I know, Aristotle's coining is original, not ...



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