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Military campaigns sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church during the High Middle Ages and Late Middle Ages.

The Crusades were a series of military campaigns sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church during the Middle Ages with the goal of restoring Christian access to the Holy Land. The First Crusade was declared in 1091, and they continued into the 15th century. The Fourth Crusade, during which Roman Catholics sacked Constantinople, effectively ended the chances of reconciliation between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches.

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