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St. Bernard of Clairvaux is perhaps the most well known promoter of the Crusades. He is credited for sparking the 2nd Crusade by writing very convincing letters to the Kings of Christendom. On Christmas Day, 1144, the Seljuk Turks captured Edessa, chief city of one of the Christian principalities set up by the First Crusade. Appeals for help went at once to ...


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They helped to break down feudalism by increasing the authority of kings. Some nobles died in battle without leaving an heir. Their lands passed to the king. Some nobles sold their land in an effort to raise money to pay the special tax levied by the king to offset the cost of the crusades. Some nobles gave their serfs a chance to buy their freedom in an ...


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The era of the Crusades certainly coincides with a dramatic increase in the authority of the Pope, both in practical terms and in the development of doctrine. It is a bit hard to untangle how much of this is due to the Crusades themselves. First, a word of warning! It is very easy to slip into anachronistic habits when thinking about the medieval papacy. It ...


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I have recently taken few lesson of Gregorian Chant and we sung something from the Ninth Mass to Virgin Mary. Unfortunately, we stopped at Kyrie and I've heard its Sanctus just once or twice, so I can't tell whether some part of it is similar to that Aleinu record or not. I have notes for the Sanctus, so at the first opportunity I can scan the notes and link ...



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