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"Some Protestants, such as Calvinists and Lutherans, recognize the first four councils" Answer to question 1: Is the above claim true? The answer to your first question is a no. As a precursor to my answer, I will state that: This Wikipedia claim is very loose, generalized and not specific enough. If the Wikipedia statement was more detailed and had more ...


3

A biblical case for inerrancy can certainly be made on the basis of passages like 2 Timothy 3:16 and 2 Peter 3:16, but these are limited in that they do not obviously refer to the entire Bible, both Old and New Testaments. So to address this question it's best to turn to the writings of the early fathers. Clear statements of the truthfulness and perfection ...


3

The "early church" is indeed an imprecise term, but academically a loose consensus exists. A survey of books and college courses indicates that the end point of the "early church" is most often identified during the fifth or sixth centuries. Here's a breakdown: End of 5th century. Some authors expliticly or implictly include the entire fifth century. ...


2

Wikipedia explains the Quartodeciman controversy thus: The Quartodeciman controversy arose because Christians in the churches of Jerusalem and Asia Minor celebrated Passover on the 14th of the first month (Aviv), while the churches in and around Rome changed to the practice of celebrating Easter on the following Sunday. The difference was turned ...


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The earliest indication may be in the Didache, typically dated at the end of the first century. It describes the celebration of the Lord's Supper in terms of the cup and breaking bread, and then says: But every Lord's day gather yourselves together, and break bread, and give thanksgiving after having confessed your transgressions, that your sacrifice ...


2

Each and every one of the first Seven Ecumenical Councils are recognized as valid councils by the Catholic Church. No Roman Pontiff has ever decreed it otherwise. You will not find any Papal Bulls or any other decrees of condemnations on this point! In fact, any truly orthodox Catholic website will always list the first seven Ecumenical Councils in the list ...


5

When did Good Friday first get called “Good”? To be honest, we do not know for sure, but then possibly in 1290 if you accept "guode friday" as meaning Good Friday! We honestly don’t know. Linguists are unable to trace when and where and why Crucifixion Day came to be known as Good Friday. The word “good” is sometimes used in the Bible in the sense of “...


1

Firstly, who are the Quartodecimans? The Quartodecimans are followers of the Early Church who kept Easter on the fourteenth day of the moon of Nisan, whatever day of the week that might be, following therein the tradition which was claimed to have derived from St. John the Apostle. Irenaeus states that St. Polycarp, who like the other Asiatics, kept ...


5

The Didascalia Apostolorum, dated to AD 230, prescribe activities during Holy Week, including a fast on Friday: Therefore you shall fast in the days of the Pascha from the tenth, which is the second day of the week; and you shall sustain yourselves with bread and salt and water only, at the ninth hour, until the fifth day of the week. But on the Friday ...


0

I believe that the first instance of Good Friday (called Great and Holy Friday in the Orthodox Church) being recorded was in the diary of a Spanish nun named Egeria, written sometime between 381 and 385 AD, as summarized by Benedictine monk Dom Gregory Dix: It begins on Passion Sunday with a procession to Bethany where the gospel of the raising of ...


3

No, "they" celebrated the Eucharist throughout the year. I am not sure what your source material is, but perhaps there is some confusion about the term "Passover" in a Christian context. "Easter" has always been referred to using the Hebrew word for Passover - "Pascha" - in the Christian east and continues to be referred to as such to this day in the ...


3

The early Church Fathers taught that the twelve Apostles corresponded to the twelve tribes of Israel, even though each Apostle was not from a different tribe. For example: To these He gave authority to preach the Gospel, being twelve in number, corresponding [lit. in witness to] to the twelve tribes of Israel. The Epistle of Barnabas (late 1st/...


2

I think that Henry Chadwick is conflating Manichaeism with Christian asceticism, toward which he appears to have a bias. He clearly indicates in another work - Priscillian of Avila: The Occult and Charismatic in the Early Church - that he had Manichaeism in mind when he interpreted the passage, but also considered certain non-canonical Christian ritual ...


1

Your raise a lot of interesting points that are sources of great controversy between different Christian groups, but I'll try to focus on your question: What is an overview of the theological differences that led to distinct approaches to unwanted State innovation and overreach in the West and East? I don't think there really was much distinction ...


0

It seems to me that before the Enlightenment, the predominant understanding of the structure of the universe was that the cosmos, while stratified, is unitary- that "the Heavens", which include the spheres of the stars, then of the angels, and the abode of YHWH, have substantial existence in the same way that the Earth does. When one speaks of ...



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