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Passions of the soul The OED defines "affection" as: I. Senses relating to the mind. 1. a. The action or result of affecting the mind in some way; a mental state brought about by any influence; an emotion, feeling. By "affection," it seems you mean what St. Thomas calls "passion" (passio) in his Treatise on the Passions (Summa Theologica I-II qq....


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Whether valid popes have been heretics It isn't necessarily true that Pope Honorius I was a heretic. St. Robert Cardinal Bellarmine, the great doctor of the papacy, defended several popes, including Pope Honorius I, against accusations of heresy in his work that is translated into English as Papal Error?: A Defense of Popes said to have Erred in Fatih (ch. ...


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Conditions for a valid pope male Catholic (not a heretic*) valid election *See Pope Paul IV's bull (encyclical) Cum ex apostolatus officio on how a heretical papal candidate would be invalidly elected. Who can judge the validity of a pope? Only a valid Pope is the supreme judge: Can. 1442 The Roman Pontiff is the supreme judge for the entire ...


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In the case of a disputed election, the decision is largely based on which pope is elected first, although this is not always the case. Eulalius was elected pope in 418, one day before Boniface I. However, through overconfidence, Eulalius flouted an imperial order and the emperor then recognised Boniface as the rightful pope, leaving Eulalius as antipope. So,...


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Pope Honorius I served from 625 to 638 when the Church was still undivided. At that time there was no doctrine within the Church of Papal infallibility and the Pope's place with respect to the other Patriarchs was understood to be first in honor, but he had no authority over any bishop outside the jurisdiction of the Roman See. These things were innovations ...


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Your raise a lot of interesting points that are sources of great controversy between different Christian groups, but I'll try to focus on your question: What is an overview of the theological differences that led to distinct approaches to unwanted State innovation and overreach in the West and East? I don't think there really was much distinction ...


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Although you are directing your question specifically towards Roman Catholics, I would point out that Eastern Orthodox also believe in transubstantiation as you define it, although different terms are sometimes used. So I will also comment on your question from an Eastern Orthodox perspective (to the best of my ability, God being my helper). In answer to ...


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The Church's Theological Notes or Qualifications Listed below are the so-called theological notes and their associated censures from the table in Sixtus Cartechini, S.J.'s 1951 work De Valore Notarum Theologicarum (On the Value of the Theological Notes), which confessors have used when dealing with erudite penitents; it's also available in Italian ...


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In Cardinal Levada’s glossary, charity (or love) is defined as, "The theological virtue by which we love God above all things for his own sake, and our neighbor as ourselves for the love of God." Paul tells us that love is the greatest of the theological virtues: "So faith, hope, love abide, these three; but the greatest of these is love" (1 Cor. 13:13). ...


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The ubiquity doctrine is problematic to Catholics in that it does not acknowledge a "real" (substantial) change. Second, Lutherans reject Rome's identification of the bread and wine as the corporal body and blood of the Lord. At the Lord's Table, the bread remains bread; the wine remains wine. Luther, however, argued that there was a communication of ...


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From what you've quoted of Ott, it sounds like this "Ubiquity* Doctrine" holds that Christ's human nature is His divine nature. This is the heresy of monophysitism,** which says that Christ only has one nature, not both human and divine natures. *(ubi- = Latin for "where" or "in what place")**(mono- = one; phys- = nature) It is not necessary, for ...


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Concordats in the sense of a "treaty" were prominent in Pope Pius XI's papacy (cf. the Lateran Treaty) and in Pope Pius XII's also (Pope Pius XII was Pope Pius XI's secretary of state). See this list of concordats. Also, there are some good books on the Catholic Church and State doctrine: Catholic Church and Christian State: A Series of Essays on the ...


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I don't know what a "small blue New Testament bible" is, but I suppose your principal was thinking about a translation. In Italy the Church uses the "CEI Edition", translated by Italian Episcopal Conference in 1978 and revised in 2008 and it's mandatory during official functions - but in informal occasions, sometimes we use other translations: I will not ...


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There is no reason preventing more chalices form being consacrated, but usually catholics uses olny one cup mainly for pratical reasons: since there is no need for each faithful to receive the Blood, in most cases only the priest drinks it, so one cup is enough. Even when there are more priests, each one takes only a little sip from the same cup (possibily ...


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St. Thomas, in his Catena Aurea (Golden Chain) on St. Mark's Gospel, cap. 11 l. 4, cites St. Theophlyact, who writes: For whosoever sincerely believes evidently lifts up his heart to God, and is joined to Him, and his burning heart feels sure that he has received what he asked for, which he who has experienced will understand; and those persons appear to ...


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Does agape contain affection for others whom the agape is directed to? Short answer: Yes(it can, but it does not seem to be required to). Discussion Definition: Agape (Ancient Greek: ἀγάπη) is "love: the highest form of love, charity; the love of God for man and of man for God." The Catholic teaching on Charity. The catholic teaching is that agape/...


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St. Thomas Aquinas's view on "Whether heretics ought to be tolerated?" St. Thomas Aquinas's Summa Theologica II-II q. 11 a. 3 c., his answer to the question "Whether heretics ought to be tolerated?," shows that although heretics deserve death, the Church must show them mercy, and if they are stubborn, apply disciplinary means like excommunication, only ...


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The Code of Canon Law for the Latin Rite Catholic Church states that there may be one or two sponsors for the sacrament of baptism. However, if there are two sponsors, one must be male and the other must be female. Thus two sponsors of the same sex is not permitted according to the laws of the Church. Can. 873 There is to be only one male sponsor or one ...


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Chapter 18 of Matthew explains it pretty clearly that these little ones are not only referring to children, but to those who believe in Jesus and humbles himself as a little child. 2 He called a little child to him, and placed the child among them. 3 And he said: “Truly I tell you, unless you change and become like little children, you will never ...


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My question is, what exactly is this "heavenly reward"? The short answer: the reward is that you are with God rather than not. Discussion Since you ask from the Catholic perspective, the reply will be based on the current Catechism1. About each person getting a different reward. CCC 1023 Those who die in God's grace and friendship and are ...


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Why do Catholics sign themselves three (3) times just before the Gospel is read? To understand the significance of this tradition, let us take a look into its origins. Concerning the making the sign of the cross at the proclamation of the Holy Gospel, after the deacon or priest says, “A reading from the Holy Gospel according to ….,” he and the faithful ...


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Criticisms of the Summa Theologica Are there any criticisms of the Summa Theologica within the Catholic Church? Accusations of Denying the Immaculate Conception Many have claimed that he wrote against the Immaculate Conception (cf. Summa Theologica III q. 27 "Of the Sanctification of the Blessed Virgin" and the editorial note at the top) and because ...


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Before the Gospel is read, a Catholic makes signs of the cross, with the thumb, on his or her forehead, mouth, and heart, which represents that the Catholic must understand the Gospel, proclaim it, and "take it to heart," i.e., put it into practice, with charity. Dom Prosper Guéranger's Explanation of the Prayers and Ceremonies of the Holy Mass (...


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Contrary to what you say about missals, the rubrics in my missal (The CTS New Daily Missal) say that before the reading of the gospel, "He [the deacon/priest] makes the Sign of the Cross on the book and, together with the people, on his forehead, lips, and breast." (emphasis added)


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Having been a lifelong Catholic, I have only picked this up through seeing other people do it. That being said, I have always seen it as being symbolic of keeping the Gospel in my mind, on my lips, and in my heart. You can find some other perspectives on it here and here.


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Authority of St. Thomas's Summa Theologica Are all the articles of St. Thomas Aquinas's Summa Theologica to be accepted as the truth by every Catholic? The Authority of St. Thomas Aquinas by Fr. Jacobus M. Ramírez, O.P., a famous Thomist, enumerated four "distinct categories of St. Thomas' doctrinal authority, namely, scientific and canonical, ...


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St Thomas Aquinas was canonized on July 18, 1323 and is commonly called the Angelic Doctor and the Universal Teacher. He is also the patron saint of Catholic academies, Catholic schools, Catholic universities, scholars, philosophers and theologians. What have the Popes said on St. Thomas? Pope St Pius V in 1567. St. Pius V declared him a Doctor of The ...


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To answer your question about 'extreme unction' Gillets summarizes it best under the phrase 'qualified sense' The seven sacraments of the church were all admitted, though in a qualified sense, by Wickliffe. It is evident that his exposition of their significance would strip them of all that peculiar importance which was attributed to them by the ...


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Canon 915 states: Those who have been excommunicated or interdicted after the imposition or declaration of the penalty and others obstinately persevering in manifest grave sin are not to be admitted to holy communion. Those who publicly promote contraception are "persevering in manifest grave sin". It's manifest because it's public; it's grave because ...


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According to "Letter of the Holy Father, Pope Benedict XVI, To the Bishops, Priests, Consecrated Persons, and Lay Faithful of the Catholic Church, in the People's Republic of China:" ... sacraments administered by such Bishops and priests are likewise valid. More details if you don't want to read the whole letter yourself: In Section 8 of the ...


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From the Catholic perspective, the universal teaching is that all persons are called by God to chastity, which is understood as a successful integration, inner unity and rational expression of human sexuality, both within the person as well as in interpersonal relationships (CCC 2337). The Church helps sinners in a variety of states of life—including those ...


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The official website of the Vatican seems to be silent on this issue. Nevertheless it may be up to the local ordinary to make special norms for the diocese in question! The following is taken from Redemptionis Sacramentum of the Vatican: [160.] Let the diocesan Bishop give renewed consideration to the practice in recent years regarding this matter, and ...


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Lay "Eucharistic Ministers" are a post-Vatican II novelty, as is Communion in the hand. The actual norms only permit them in cases of grave necessity (e.g., in regions where there is no priest). See, e.g., The Eucharistic Storms: Communion in the hand and marginalizing the Real Presence by Barry Forbes.


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If they do not recognize the papacy, they are schismatic. Schismatics can give valid sacraments, e.g., the Eastern Orthodox schismatics have a valid liturgy and priestly orders. Anyone can validly baptize, provided he or she uses the correct form ("I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.") and matter (water). If ...


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The Catholic Church honors the Apostle St Paul as a Pillar of the Church and as a martyr. The Church celebrates two major events in the life of the Apostle. On January 25, Catholics celebrate the Conversion of St Paul. The martyrdoms of both Saints Peter and Paul is commemorated on the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul, June 29. The moment that changed the ...


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As long as we're talking about using icons in worship and not worshiping icons: The very earliest written account of icons in general that I'm aware of comes in Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History written in the early 4th century before and during the reign of Constantine (it is regarded as the very first history of the Christian church ever written): I do ...


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They don't joke about it beacuse they regard the sacraments as holy and if anyone were to do so would be sacrilegious. Nothing would happen if you did beacuse the sacraments aren't biblical they are foreign to scripture.


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From what you have quoted I would say that we can kill animals for food. "Just satisfaction" meaning to satisfy our reasonable needs - e.g., we need food to live. That we need to treat them kindly speaks to how they are allowed to live and that we "dispatch" them with out causing pain or distress. This, in my opinion, affects the eggs and chickens we buy -...


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In a word, no. There is no particular Church teaching regarding what to do with amputated body parts, exported organs, and so forth. Hence, proper medical protocols should be followed (including cremation, especially if that is the safest or least costly option). It should be observed that body parts and organs that have been removed from a living body are ...


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The whole rationale behind discouraging cremation is that it does not affirm Catholics' faith in the resurrection of the body, and cremation is practiced by pagans and other non-believers. At the General Judgment, when the deceased's souls and bodies reunite again, all the parts of our bodies will be gathered together, including amputated parts. In the ...


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Transubstantiation is adhering to these three mysteries (or miracles), described in the Catechism of the Council of Trent: The Real Presence:that the true body of Christ the Lord, the same that was born of the Virgin, and is now seated at the right hand of the Father in heaven, is contained in this Sacrament. Transubstantion itself:that, however repugnant ...



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