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13

Calvinists indeed believe they can only make educated guesses about others; if someone you thought was saved falls away, the conclusion is they were never actually saved. But Calvinism teaches that "infallible assurance of faith" is available to believers about themselves. The Grounds of Assurance The Westminster Confession of Faith says in chapter 18: ...


10

Summary: Calvinists interpret these passages as referring to God's righteousness and justice — that he is a fair judge, consistently judging sin as wrong, whether committed by rich or poor, strong or weak, native or foreigner. They do not indicate that God's gracious gifts – wealth, strength, and even salvation – are distributed equally to all. Calvinists ...


8

John Calvin does indeed treat this verse. He says:1 By saying אולי, auli, “if peradventure,” he made use of a common mode of speaking. God indeed has perfect knowledge of all events, nor had he any doubt respecting what would take place, when the prophets had discharged their duties; but what is pointed out here, and also condemned, is the obstinacy of ...


5

The summary in Mike's answer seems accurate. I would like to add some further background and primary sources. Evidently, Calvin felt it necessary to write to Sir William Cecil, Queen Elizabeth I's chief adviser, when Calvin's messenger told him that the queen was unhappy with Calvin because of Knox's Monstrous Regiment, which was written in Geneva. In ...


5

You perception of what limited atonement means is incorrect, therefore, your analogy is flawed. Limited atonement is not a declaration that the atonement is not enough to cover the world. On the contrary, Christ's death is infinitely sufficient. Limited atonement is a declaration that the world will only receive atonement in limited number (i.e. the elect). ...


4

I regard "protestant" or "Calvinistic" as equivalent qualifiers of "work ethic". The many exponents of christian work ethic have included Benjamin Franklin (an agnostic who viewed Christian ethics favourably) and particularly the French theologian John Calvin 1509 - 1564 who based their thought on verses such as: 1 Timothy 5:18 For the scripture saith, Thou ...


4

Some do, some don't. Dividing lines aren't completely cut-and-dry, but it is a controversial question among reformed folk. Generally, you'll find "yeses" among cage-stage Calvinists, and also among more confessional Presbyterians, such as those in the ARP or RPCNA, thought it's probably a minority view even in those churches. You'll find more "nos" in ...


4

One prominent Reformed theologian, Louis Berkhof, has written that "[t]he problem of the origin of the evil that is in the world has always been considered as one of the profoundest problems of philosophy and theology." Other Reformed theologians share this assessment. Charles Hodge suggests that given "the feebleness of our powers" and the "limited range ...


3

John Piper passionately argues in his 2003 sermon Palm Sunday Tears of Sovereign Mercy that this doesn't contradict the doctrine of foreordination: There is something not quite right about this objection to Jesus’ sovereignty. He can make praise come from rocks. And so he could do the same from rock-hard hearts in Jerusalem. What’s more, all this ...


3

In order to know the answer to the question, we need first to know the difference between the pre-fall and fall of Adam. PRE-FALL Adam was created with the ability to choose life or death (Genesis 2:17). FALL Adam was unable to choose life except by the influence of God (John 6:44). Ergo, despite of the fact that God's holy influence is so convincing, ...


3

It's true that the reformed definition of sovereignty leads to limited atonement, but the relationship between sovereignty and atonement is different from that of sovereignty and commands (like the call to repent and believe). The reason is that in the first pairing, there is an intermediate step: election. This step is sometimes not explicitly mentioned, ...


2

Total depravity defined The Canons of Dort define total depravity pretty well in section 3: All people are conceived in sin and are born children of wrath, unfit for any saving good, inclined to evil, dead in their sins, and slaves to sin. Without the grace of the regenerating Holy Spirit they are neither willing nor able to return to God, to reform ...


2

As an ex-Calvinist turned mid-Acts dispensationalist, I find there are two primary points of contention that lead to all the rest: Covenant/Reformed theology's tendency to allegorize or spiritualize various parts of Scripture vs dispensationalism's tendency to take it literally where it seems literally intended. Covenant/Reformed folk (and others, to ...


2

Calvinists interpret these passages as both pronouncements against the sinful actions of the Pharisees as well as warnings to those who might follow them. But ultimately these actions cannot circumvent God's will: they will be judged for their attempts and sinful motivations, but God's irresistible grace, when offered, always overcomes resistance. Verse 13 ...


2

The Augustinian tradition, going back to the early anti-Pelagian writing On Nature and Grace, distinguishes between the human nature and the defect of original sin. We have a defective nature, therefore, and that is what we pass on to our children, but Christ is still consubstantial with us even though He was always without sin. Sin is not part of human ...


2

The term'limited atonement' is not actually a helpful term. Every theological position that advocates that Jesus Christ provides an atonement applies some sort of limitation to that atonement with the exception of universalism. For whom did Jesus die The question really boils down to who did Jesus die for, did he die to achieve the actual salvation of the ...


2

In a limited sense, yes, some Reformed paedobaptists have supported this: the presentation of slave children for baptism by their masters was practiced and supported in the Presbyterian Church in the USA in the antebellum period. However, I find no evidence that adult slaves were baptized except upon their own conversion (that is, not when the master was ...


1

What you're referring to is more commonly called the "Protestant Work Ethic" or less commonly called the "Puritan Work Ethic". It is from Weber's book, unironically named "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism". The basic jist of the theory is based on the various biblical teachings valuing work. This also means physical work (Prov 21:12, 2 ...


1

The concept of predestination in Calvinism is true from the standpoint that there are certain persons whose Spirit is destined to be cast into the lake of fire and burn for eternity. The predestination of these souls in not a predetermination of God. It is in fact a pre-knowledge of God. Just as Jesus was aware of the details of his demise prior to the ...


1

JUSTIFICATION: BEING DECLARED RIGHTEOUS Think of justification as a legal term, which is--in a sense--what it is. God, the judge of all humankind, has every right to demand satisfaction for our having broken his laws. We are culpable, each one of us, and as the Scripture says, "Behold, all souls are mine; as the soul of the father, so also the soul ...


1

Five-pointer Calvinists know that they are saved.1 John 5:13 says we may know that we have eternal life because of the assurance that we have in the written word. 1 John 5:13(ESV) 13 I write these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God that you may know that you have eternal life. Furthermore, Calvinists believe that it is faith ...


1

I think there is a more accurate hermeneutics approach to the proof texts used for irresistible grace (i.e. John 6). The explanation will be too long here but there are three articles that make the case that you can take the natural meaning of the pertinent biblical passages. In short, they posit that the pertinent passages are referring to Old Testament ...


1

Unconditional election is elegantly and concisely defined in the Belgic Confession, article 16: We believe that—all Adam’s descendants having thus fallen into perdition and ruin by the sin of Adam—God showed himself to be as he is: merciful and just. God is merciful in withdrawing and saving from this perdition those who, in the eternal and ...


1

What is the Biblical basis for Total Depravity? The phrase "total depravity" in itself defines the capacity for the natural man to do good and defines it as completely zero. Most take this to be a bit of hyperbole. It might be more accurate to say that we are totally unable to be righteous. The Bible does say that no one (continually) seeks after good. ...


1

There are three points I would like to bring to your attention. Only God is good: Matthew 19:17: And he said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments. There are only two sides: Matthew 12:30: He that is not with me is against me; and he that gathereth ...



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