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Theory suggests that Calvin's strong support for and writings about penal substitution was tied to his work in the legal system (as a lawyer). The concept is definitely a parallel. [Christ] made a substitute and a surety in the place of transgressors and even submitted as a criminal, to sustain and suffer all the punishment which would have been ...


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The strongest defenders of penal substitution are going to be conservative Calvinists: that is, those who hold to the "five points" of Calvinism and reject modernist approaches to Scripture. Outside this group, many nonetheless hold to penal substitution, but there is more diversity of opinion. A few examples of conservative Calvinists who hold to penal ...



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