Arminianism is a school of soteriological thought within Protestant Christianity based on the theological ideas of the Dutch Reformed theologian Jacobus Arminius (1560–1609) and his historic followers, the Remonstrants. The doctrine's acceptance stretches through much of Christianity from the early arguments between Athanasius and Origen, to Augustine of Hippo's defense of "original sin." Dutch Arminianism was originally articulated in the Remonstrance (1610), a theological statement signed by 45 ministers and submitted to the Dutch states general. The Synod of Dort (1618–19) was called by the states general to pass upon the Remonstrance. The five points of the Remonstrance asserted that:
- election (and condemnation on the day of judgment) was conditioned by the rational faith or nonfaith of man
- the Atonement, while qualitatively adequate for all men, was efficacious only for the man of faith
- unaided by the Holy Spirit, no person is able to respond to God’s will; grace is not irresistible
- believers are able to resist sin but are not beyond the possibility of falling from grace.
The crux of Remonstrant Arminianism lay in the assertion that human dignity requires an unimpaired freedom of the will.