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16

There is one problem with the argument - "Matthias was never sent by Christ to do anything, therefore he cannot be an apostle". The problem is that Barnabus (of whom we have no evidence that he was sent by Christ) is also called an "apostle" in Acts 14:14. We know that Judas was an apostle and his "office" (Acts 1:20) was taken over by Matthias. And it is ...


13

Historically, Mark is seen as one of Peter's disciples. The historian Papias in the 2nd Century refers to him as such. Likewise, the evidence in the narrative, for example, indicates that Peter was a significant source for most of the material, and most theologians accept Mark as "Peter's" Gospel. Also, its seeming indication that the Temple is still ...


12

24 And they prayed, and said, Thou, Lord, which knowest the hearts of all men, shew whether of these two thou hast chosen, 25 That he may take part of this ministry and apostleship, from which Judas by transgression fell, that he might go to his own place. 26 And they gave forth their lots; and the lot fell upon Matthias; and he was ...


11

Acts is quite clear on the matter. Matthias was called to fill the vacancy left by Judas, whereas Paul didn't even appear on the scene for quite some time afterwards. And even after he showed up, we have several epistles where he refers to himself as an apostle, but unlike Matthias, the actual process of him being called as an apostle has not been preserved ...


11

The Bible says a great deal about testing prophets and spirits. A spirit will confess that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh. Dear friends, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are from God, because many false prophets have gone out into the world. 2 This is how you can recognize the Spirit of God: Every spirit that ...


11

I got most of this information by perusing Wikipedia. Simon Peter (brother of Andrew) - traditionally said to be buried in Rome, under St. Peter's Basilica. The tomb dates between 130 and 300. James (son of Zebedee and older brother of John) also called "James the Greater" - as the patron saint of Spain, he is said to have been buried in Santiago de ...


10

As with any leadership position in the Church, the calling of an Apostle is extended through revelation, by the leadership with the authority to call someone to the position, and a candidate does not apply or campaign for it. The new apostle will be chosen by the First Presidency, a council made up of the President of the Church and his two councilors, who ...


9

In broad terms there are two schools of thought on this. One concerns apostolic succession - the idea that the authority of the original 12 apostles has been passed down through the generations, relay-race style. For those who follow the doctrine of apostolic succession, apostolic authority belongs only to those who have inherited it from a predecessor, ...


8

Different books of the Bible use the terms apostle and disciple in differing ways. The word disciple means a follower or student of a teacher, while the word apostle means a messenger or ambassador who champions a particular cause. Initially, the term "apostle" was used to describe the early followers of Jesus. There were specific requirements to be called ...


7

One of the closest examples would be Paul's Letter to the Laodiceans. Scholarship is divided about the authorship, whether it is Paul or a Marcionite forgery - but the point is that at the time, when canonization was occurring, it was not accepted as such. Most everything else (Gospel of Peter, Gospel of Thomas, etc...) was pretty much rejected even at the ...


7

This answer brings up an interesting verse in 1 Corinthians 7, when Paul distinguishes between his words and the Lord's. Now to the married I command, yet not I but the Lord: A wife is not to depart from her husband. But even if she does depart, let her remain unmarried or be reconciled to her husband. And a husband is not to divorce his wife. But to ...


7

Here are some suggestions, none of which I am claiming as necessarily the answer: Naming people draws attention to them. The writers probably didn't want their readers going to find out what these people were writing Naming people makes them exclusive. If the writer says "don't listen to Marcus and Suetonius" that leaves Octavius free to spread his ...


7

The words used in this question, for example, “Errorless”, or by using open statements solely without proper parameters like “infallibility” without setting up boundaries makes the question easy to answer. No, Jesus never stated or certified that the apostles where errorless (In all Things) or infallible (In all things), ever. I may be wrong but I feel ...


6

The word apostle is a straight transliteration of the Greek apostolos, literally meaning "one who is sent forth." It implies an ambassador or messenger bearing an official message by the authority of someone more powerful than himself. Jesus called twelve Apostles to be his special messengers to all the world. As we know, Judas, one of the twelve, ...


6

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zealotry I'll quote an interesting part here. The Zealots objected to Roman rule and violently sought to eradicate it by generally targeting Romans and Greeks. Zealots engaged in violence against other Jews were called the Sicarii.[9] They raided Jewish habitations and killed Jews they considered ...


6

I think the answer can be summed up in what John the Baptist says regarding Jesus in John 3:30: "He must increase, but I must decrease." That is to say, the Gospels were not primarily about bolstering confidence in the disciples, but rather about telling the truth about and bolstering confidence in Jesus. In other words, I think you partially ...


6

Bishops (from the Greek, epi-scopus = overseers) are the successors of the Apostles. Their primary responsibility is shepherding the faith of the people in their diocese. They ordain priests, perform the sacrament of confirmation on the faithful, and serve to teach, provide guidance and support for the faithful. So in that sense, they indeed have the ...


6

Apollos was an Alexandrian Jew, as stated in Acts 18:24 (with following verses indicating that he knew the [Jewish] Scriptures and preached the gospel--"the way of the Lord"--but only knew "the baptism of John" before being further instructed by Priscilla and Aquila). It is possible that, like Timothy, he had a Jewish mother but a Gentile father; this ...


6

Judas, of course, hung himself after betraying Jesus James is the only other Apostle whose death is recorded in Scripture, in Acts 12:1-2 It was about this time that King Herod arrested some who belonged to the church, intending to persecute them. 2 He had James, the brother of John, put to death with the sword. The rest of the Apostles deaths are ...


6

Rabbi and Talmidim First of all, I encourage you to read this article, it was the first thing that came to mind when I read your question as it answers it perfectly. I'll do my best to sum it up: In short, the reason the Apostles dropped what they were doing and followed Christ at the words, "Follow me," is because Jesus surprised them with an opportinity ...


5

Judas was the twelfth apostle, an by your own definition Matthias makes a more fit candidate to be reckoned as lucky #12 after Judas' death. In Luke 10, Jesus sends out 72 disciples. Among them most assuredly was St. Matthias. And the rest of the Apostles were doing quite a bit of on the job training, clearly away for Jesus as is shown in Matthew 17:21 ...


5

According to Strong's Concordance, the definition of the greek used here is "one who is eagerly devoted to a person or a thing, a zealot." The Helps Word-studies says a zealot is one "who (literally) 'boils over with passion'". (Here "boils over" is the literal translation of zeó, which figuratively means "to be earnest, to set one's heart on, to be ...


5

Luke 10:1 (NIV) After this the Lord appointed seventy-two[a] others and sent them two by two ahead of him to every town and place where he was about to go. [a] Some manuscripts seventy; also in verse 17 Jesus did not have only Twelve disciples. There were other Seventy or Seventy-two disciples that Jesus appointed to preach the Gospel. ...


5

Did some disciples get treated differently from others? You've pretty much answered your own question here. Jesus had many disciples. At least seventy, probably many more. And different groups were certainly treated differently. The best-known select group were the Twelve, called the Apostles. They were given more detailed explanations of some of Jesus' ...


5

John Calvin starts by reminding us that Jesus commanded them to begin at Jerusalem (Acts 1:4,8), and says that it makes sense that they would stay there until "being brought into some other place by his hand": But here may a question be asked, forasmuch as they were commanded to preach the gospel throughout the whole world, (Mark 16:16) why they stayed ...


4

Apostle does come from the Greek word apostolos / apostello, as noted by Mason Wheeler, and it does indicate one who is sent out. In the Gospels, the Twelve are most commonly referred to as disciples. They were following the Teacher, learning from Him as His students. In John 17:18 and Matthew 28:18-20, among other verses, Jesus specifically sends ...


4

Specifically, the word Apostle comes from the greek word 'apostolos' which literally means messenger, envoy, or one sent. Apostle essentially means "teacher" as opposed to disciple which means "student". Specifically in Christianity the Apostles were the 11 disciples who went on to spread the Gospel of Christ after His death and resurrection. Paul and some ...


4

To answer the question of "apostolic authority", you must first define "apostolic succession". From the Wikipedia article on apostolic succession: Apostolic succession (Hebrew: הירושה האפיפיורית‎, Greek: Αποστολική διαδοχή) is a doctrine, held by some Christian denominations, which asserts that the chosen successors (properly ordained bishops) of the ...


4

I see several possibilities: One major characteristic of the Gnostic groups was the lack of defined leadership1, so one might imagine that the false brethren may simply have been without definite leader. Considering that the Gnostic movement would have started by the time that the Johanine literature was complete, I think this should hold particular ...


4

While we know little about Matthias' actions after this event (and Scripture says little about his life beforehand), it isn't simply that men chose Matthias and the Spirit chose Paul. There is at least one very important consideration that should lead us away from that conclusion. If we conclude that men chose Matthias, then we must either ignore the fact ...



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