Martin Luther, the 16th-century reformer of the Roman Catholic Church

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What is Martin Luther's approach to liturgical services in light of Paul Tillich?

This article has a line that reads: We would call Luther's approach an evangelical-catholic one. It cites Paul Tillich's use of "catholic substance" or "protestant principle". Can someone ...
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Who was the last valid pope according to the founders of various Protestant sects? [closed]

Who was the last valid pope according to the various founders of Protestant sects (e.g., Luther, Calvin, et al.)?
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Did Martin Luther effectively teach that our justification is like white snow covering over dung?

Over the internet I have come across posts like this that say Luther stated that our sinful state is much like the piles of manure. It is ugly, repulsive and offensive. There is nothing in it ...
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How did Martin Luther see Israel?

Did Luther think Israel and the Church were two different things? Did he believe in the promises made for Israel as a nation? Was he anti-Semitic when he reformed the church? Did he become one later?
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When did Martin Luther begin to see the church as entirely apostate?

Related to Martin Luther: "Therefore it is not a Christian Church either"? and What was Martin Luthers perspective on the apostasy of the early Christian Church? and Is it true that Luther ...
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Did Martin Luther think John Calvin is a “son of the devil”?

I read from here (a Chinese website) that Martin Luther called John Calvin a son of the Devil. Now I have never seen this quote anywhere. Did Luther say something like this to Calvin? If yes, why?
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What was Martin Luthers perspective on the apostasy of the early Christian Church?

Was his belief that their foundation was faulty to begin with or that through time they fell into an apostate state and needed to be reformed back?
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Did the Christian practice of having a prayer before Bible study evolve during Martin Luther's time?

In Eric W. Gritsch's book, A History of Lutheranism, he reports, He memorized whole portions of the Bible (available in the Latin translation of St. Jerome, c. 348-420) and used various existing ...
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What is the source for Martin Luther's quote against the use of pipe organ music?

I've heard it said that Martin Luther condemned the use of pipe organs, saying that they were somehow evil. What is the source for this quote? Or is it falsely attributed to Luther?
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What made Luther a heretic and not a schismatic?

I know the difference between heresy and schism, but I don't know why various Protestant reformation leaders, Martin Luther in particular, wouldn't have been satisfied by merely being a schismatic ...
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What did Luther consider to be novel in his theology of creation?

In Colin Gunton's The Doctrine of Creation (T&T Clark, 1997), he says: In view of what we have just noted [in the previous section on Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotus and William of Ockham] about ...
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Did Martin Luther believe the Church needed to be reformed before the Great Schism of 1054AD, or after?

I think its safe to say that Martin Luther, being one of the fathers of Protestantism, was primarily at odds with the Roman Church. He posted his 95 theses to confront what he thought to be ...
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Is it true that Luther intentionally mistranslated Romans 3:28?

I recently listened to Dr. Scott Hahn's conversion testimony. One thing that really jumped out at me was that Dr. Hahn stated that Luther purposely inserted the German word "allein" (alone) into ...
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Did Martin Luther ever remove books from the New Testament canon?

Is it true that Luther removed James, Jude, and Revelation from the New Testament? If this is true then what were his reasons for doing so?
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Why didn't Martin Luther provide for his family to be taken care of after his death?

I recently heard Professor Stephen Nichols of Reformed Theological Seminary state that following Martin Luther's death, his wife, Katie, and his children struggled financially for some time. Did ...
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Did Martin Luther take exception to the gospels in any way?

I was watching a video* that was about the "heresy" of Protestantism. It briefly discussed Martin Luther and his exceptions with certain books. He removed the so called "apocrypha" and also took ...
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Why did Martin Luther change his surname from ‘Luder’ to ‘Luther' very early in his career?

I was surprised to find out ‘Luther’ is not Martin Luther’s original surname but ‘Luder’ is. The Greek word έλεύθερος that was the origin of his Latin name was Eleutherius. You can see ‘uder’ does not ...
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What is the difference between Protestantism vs Protestants?

According to me Protestants are the one who doesn't pray to Mary. I also came across the Protestantism which speaks about the 95 Theses which Martin Luther started against indulgence. I don't see ...
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Is “A mighty fortress is our God” anti-Catholic?

So there's a hymn called A mighty fortress is our God (Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott), written by Martin Luther; there's also a famous version by J. S. Bach. It is a call to arms against the devil, ...
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Is it true that Martin Luther was calling for killing Hebrew people?

Is it true that Martin Luther was calling in his books for killing Hebrew people and that the Lutherans of the USA in 1983 officially recanted this part of Luther's writings?
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Where Catholicism lost influence and property during the reformation, what did Luther think should be done with the acquired assets?

As a man protesting against the mass of wealth accumulated by the Pope I was wondering what Luther proposed to do with all the lands and endowments obtained in those regions where the Catholic church ...
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How did Luther view pilgramages?

From what I understand there are many people from vaious denominations who imagine certain places on the earth are 'holier' than other places and that it is good to travel long distances to visit ...
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Did Martin Luther publish any doctrinal material of managing one's own physical death?

As Christianity often comes hand-in-hand with the subject of death we often associate an RIP tombstone with a priest, pastor, or some religious representative at a burial site. However as we usually ...
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Is it true that Luther claimed Popes and priests commonly practiced sodomy?

This is a simple historical Q & A question regarding the rumor that Luther made this fairly inflammatory accusation.  The question is simple. Is there any solid proof that Luther really thought ...
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How did Luther's view of Mary change after his new birth experience?

The question is as simple as the title. Did Luther have a minor alteration in his view of Mary, or a major one after being born again? Note: By the way Luther did use the term 'born again' for some ...
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How did Luther and Calvin view Christian perfectionism?

The question is as simple as the title. Some Christians believe we can enter a state without sin. How did Luther and Calvin view that kind of concept?
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When and how did Martin Luther arrive at the justification by faith?

When and how did Martin Luther arrive at the justification by faith teaching? Was it something that he came up with as a result of his stance against the indulgences and later against the Pope, or did ...
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Were paid indulgences compulsory prior to the Reformation?

Luther's 95 Theses were a refutation of selling indulgences on the part of the Catholic Church. Did he, or others, believe that the Church was saying that: The only way to be a good Christian was ...
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Did Luther add a word to Romans 3?

There are many who have pointed out that Luther added the word, "alone" to Romans 3:28 (you can read one such example in this question) so that the Luther Bible reads: for we reckon a man to be ...
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Can someone help me cite Luther's explanation of faith alone to Catholics

So, I've seen this quoted in The Faith of Millions, and on the Internet "You tell me what a great fuss the Papists are making because the word ‘alone’ is not in the text of Paul. If your Papist ...
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Martin Luther's Sacramentology

I was reading Luther's Larger Catechism, and I came upon the section where he discusses the sacraments. I must confess, as a Baptist with a profound respect for Luther, some of these concepts are very ...
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Any Roman Catholic Church martyrs from 10 - 15th centuries?

Do we know of any martyrs from among the Roman Catholic Church that lived during the 5 centuries before Martin Luther (i.e. 10 - 15th centuries). I am especially interested in those who have been ...
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Martin Luther's take on Roman Catholic clergy individuals living (immediately) before him

Is there any evidence that Martin Luther considered any of the Roman Catholic clergymen who lived in the centuries preceding his own lifetime (evidence related to those living in the centuries ...
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Which of Luther's 95 Theses are still potentially valid critiques of Roman Catholicism?

Pope Leo X enumerated 41 positions that he required Luther to recant from in order to be restored to communion with the Latin Church. Presumably, he wasn't all that excited about some of the other ...
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Did Luther Really Use Bar Tunes for his Hymns?

The title sums it up: I often hear it said during the debates on liturgy and music styles that are appropriate for worship that even Luther used common bar tunes (equivalent to days pop songs) for his ...
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When did Martin Luther lose his Apostolic succession according to Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churchеs?

As far as I understand Martin Luther according to the Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox Churches possessed the Apostolic succession while he was in the Roman Catholic Church (he was a priest, after ...
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Martin Luther: “Therefore it is not a Christian Church either”?

Martin Luther, The Large Catechism, The Apostles' Creed, Article III, paragraphs 43-45: 43] For where He does not cause it to be preached and made alive in the heart, so that it is understood, ...
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What were the main doctrinal disagreements between Luther and Calvin?

What were the main doctrinal disagreements between Luther and Calvin? Can anybody give an overview, please?
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Is it true that Luther didn't consider anyone of the Catholic clergy to be a member of the true Church of God?

Someone told me that Luther had a teaching about the true invisible Church that was a far cry from what could be seen as the Church at his time. Is it true that Luther didn't consider anyone of the ...
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Is it true that Martin Luther used some bad language in his own writings?

Is it true that Martin Luther cursed a lot and even used some bad language in his own writings?
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Is it true that Martin Luther never considered the works of the early Church Fathers?

Is it true that Martin Luther never considered the works of the early Church Fathers while he was developing and defending his teaching? Here is the list of some of those Fathers (from Wikipedia): 1 ...
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Did Martin Luther know Hebrew or Greek?

I know that Martin Luther knew Latin and German, but did he know other languages? For example, did he know Greek or Hebrew (I mean those Greek and Hebrew that the Bible is written in)?
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Why was Martin Luther attempting to change the canon?

While researching an answer to a different question, I found that Martin Luther was attempting to remove Hebrews, James, Jude and Revelations from the Bible. What was his purpose in removing these ...
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Distributing the bread before consecrating the wine

Martin Luther's Deutsche Messe was first celebrated on October 29, 1525, and the text was published the following year. I was surprised to see that for the consecration and distribution of the ...
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Luther's “Two Kingdoms” Theology

Can anyone give me a concise summary of Martin Luther's "Two Kingdoms" theology, and also provide some references back to his original works on the subject?
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How did Martin Luther's views on Free Will differ from those of Erasmus?

I understand that Martin Luther believed in the redemption of the will to serve God as part of God's redemptive work. Can someone clarify how this differed from Erasmus' viewpoint? I know I could ...
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What is the meaning of the question Luther's companions shouted on his deathbed?

In Martin Luther's Biography, In his final hour, Justus Jonas and Michael Coelius who were his companions shouted loudly and asked this question: "Reverend father, are you ready to die trusting ...
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Why did Luther curse those who oppose indulgences?

In the 95 Theses, Luther makes a stand against corruption in the Catholic church of that day. This resulted in events leading to the separation between the Catholic and Protestant churches. It seems ...
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Protestant arguments for perpetual virginity of Mary

It's common knowledge that Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodoxy have the doctrine of the perpetual virginity of Mary. Protestants generally don't have that belief. Less known is that Zwingli and ...
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What were Martin Luther's main disagreements with the Catholic Church?

What were Martin Luther's main disagreements with the Catholic Church? Were these beliefs of Luther's and his disagreements with the Catholic Church the origin of the Lutheran Church?