The history of the Church from the book of Acts and after

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83 views

Has there been a shift in Christian metaphysics from a unitary cosmos to a binary one?

It seems to me that before the Enlightenment, the predominant understanding of the structure of the universe was that the cosmos, while stratified, is unitary- that "the Heavens", which include the ...
4
votes
1answer
83 views

Why do Christians have different books in their Bible?

Some Bibles have all 4 Maccabees books, for example, while others don't. Some Bibles have Esdras and Wisdom, and yet others don't. Why is this? If there was an agreement on what books would be in the ...
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0answers
35 views

what led to the separation of the church into pentecostal and catholic [on hold]

What led to the separation of the church into pentecostal and catholic and is it recorded in the bible if so where is it recorded in the bible.
13
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2answers
953 views

What evidence is there that Peter was a bishop in Rome?

The Encyclopaedia Brittanica says The claims that the church of Rome was founded by Peter or that he served as its first bishop are in dispute and rest on evidence that is not earlier than the ...
6
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1answer
83 views

Which specific canons of the Second Council of Constantinople do Lutherans and Calvinists reject?

The Wikipedia article on the Second Council of Constantinople (the fifth Ecumenical Council) claims that Lutherans and Calvinists accept only the first four Ecumenical Councils as being canonical. My ...
11
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3answers
669 views

When was the Bible formally declared to be inerrant and/or infallible?

Fundamentally*, an inerrant Bible is one without errors and an infallible Bible is one that cannot have errors, as David Stratton pointed out in his answer. As for the Roman Catholic Church, all of ...
6
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2answers
629 views

What, exactly, is the “early Church”?

We use the phrase "The Early Church" all the time around here, which leads me to ask... What exactly is "the early Church"? The New testament Church is easy to define – the fellowship of believers ...
9
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5answers
6k views

Why was Thomas More canonized?

Thomas More was canonized in 1935 by the Catholic Church. During his chancellorship between 1525-1529 in the campaign against the reformation people were killed and tortured in his name, for example, ...
4
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3answers
53 views

Did the Quartodecimans perform the eucharist only once a year on Nisan 14?

The Quartodecimans held a Christian Passover on Nisan 14. Does this mean that they performed the eucharist (Lord's Supper) only once a year on Nisan 14, or was the Christian Passover something ...
7
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1answer
338 views

What is the earliest mention of how often the Eucharist was celebrated?

There is no explicit mention of how often the Eucharist was celebrated in the Bible. What are the earliest historical documents that make reference to how often the Eucharist was celebrated?
2
votes
1answer
56 views

Which, if any, of the seven Church Councils viewed as “Ecumenical” by Eastern Orthodox Christians are rejected by the Roman Catholic Church?

I have heard various answers to this question in the blogo- and wiki-spheres, but I would be interested in knowing what has been officially stated by the Roman Catholic Church in Bulls, Encyclicals, ...
6
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1answer
71 views

When was Good Friday first called “Good”?

In my other question, I discovered that special commemoration on Friday was held as early as the 3rd century. I also discovered that there was not necessarily a connection to the title "Good" Friday....
6
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2answers
37 views

What is the first recorded observation of Good Friday?

When was the first Good Friday commemoration observed, distinct from Pascha/Passover or Sunday Easter? Related: What is the origin of the Good Friday tradition? However, I am not interested in ...
2
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1answer
55 views

Maintaining the number of Disciples [closed]

Acts 1:24-26; And they prayed and said, “You, Lord, who know the hearts of all men, show which one of these two You have chosen, to occupy this ministry and apostleship from which Judas turned aside ...
9
votes
1answer
518 views

Did any other early church fathers besides Origen teach the pre-existence of souls?

Origen taught about the pre-existence of our souls, which, among many other of his teachings, was later condemned as heresy. Did any other early church fathers teach this doctrine?
6
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1answer
101 views

Why did Augustine attempt to stop Christians from walking barefoot?

In The Confessions, Augustine relates the story of an ascetic named Alypius who "tamed his body" to such an extent that "he went barefoot on the icy soil of Italy" (IX.vi). Henry Chadwick notes: ...
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0answers
26 views

Was the transition from establishment to voluntary church support made with “little difficulty” in the US?

In A History of American Christianity, Chapter 16, Leonard Bacon writes: The transition from establishment to the voluntary system for the support of churches was made not without some difficulty, ...
7
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2answers
81 views

Why did the Western and Eastern churches react to their respective states so differently?

In Church History in Plain Language, Bruce Shelley points out a key distinction between Western and Eastern Christianity: how each has related to the State through history. Ambrose had hit upon ...
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6answers
8k views

What color was Augustine's skin?

Ok, let me start by saying I don't think more or less of a person because of the color of their skin. I consider racism to be both misguided and a sin. But, when I visualize a person, I like to think ...
8
votes
1answer
161 views

How were women to serve the church according to the Apostolic Fathers?

Did the Apostolic Church Fathers write about the capacity in which women were to serve in the early church, or expand the capacity in which they served the church? In other words, what were they ...
7
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2answers
2k views

Who were the intended audience in the Epistle to Romans?

Romans 1:7 (ESV) To all those in Rome who are loved by God and called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. Who were the members of the Church ...
11
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1answer
363 views

Besides Paul, were there any other enemies of the early church who converted to Christianity?

As I was listening to a debate between Drs. William Lane Craig and Richard Carrier on the historicity of Jesus' resurrection, something Dr. Carrier said caught my attention. He claimed that "[Paul] is ...
6
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0answers
47 views

Did John Calvin help Nicolas Cop write his infamous inaugural address?

Early in John Calvin's career, he was involved in a controversy that forced him to flee Paris and live in hiding for a time. Calvin's friend, Nicolas Cop, delivered an address that many considered ...
2
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1answer
128 views

What is the origin of hands lifting in worship?

You don't need to go far to agree that raising hands while singing and worshiping (with music or prayer) is a big Christian tradition. I've always thought that this was some reference to Psalm 134.2: ...
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5answers
2k views

Have witches ever been executed by the Eastern Orthodox Church?

If we don't count lynchings, have people ever been executed for witchcraft by the Eastern Orthodox Church? In western Christianity, the execution of witches was condemned until 1484, four centuries ...
7
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1answer
400 views

How are the 12 Anathemas of St. Cyril against Nestorius supposed to be read?

I'd never seen this before today when I was trying to answer a question on the natures of God, but St. Cyril's 12 Anathemas against Nestorius is pretty interesting, and as a piece of literature, I ...
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0answers
40 views

Was John Smyth, the earliest Baptist, influenced by the Anabaptists?

John Smyth, according to Bruce Shelley (CHPL, 308) and Wikipedia, was the first of the English Baptists. An Anglican priest, he came to the conclusion that infant baptism was invalid and started a ...
9
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1answer
88 views

Are Anabaptists' re-baptisms really conditional baptisms?

Are Anabaptists' re-baptisms really conditional baptisms? By "conditional baptism" I mean one whose formula is something like: "If you are not baptized, I baptize thee… etc." In other words: Do ...
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1answer
34 views

Did a pre-schism Roman Bishop say he is not special? [duplicate]

I heard recently that one of the pre-schism Bishops of Rome went out of his way to say that the Bishop of Rome does not possess any special authority, power, etc over any other bishop and is merely ...
6
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1answer
671 views

Why did John Wycliffe oppose papal authority in the 14th century?

He's been called the "Eosphoros of the Reformation", but how did he come to believe that the Bible opposes the idea that papal authority is above government authority?
11
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3answers
523 views

What is the origin of the belief that Satan tortures the unsaved in Hell?

There's a thought that Satan (the devil) tortures the unsaved in Hell. For example, a brief search revealed a website wherein a member posted the following: I think of Satan more of a psycopath ...
7
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3answers
544 views

What is the earliest record of using icons to worship God in the Catholic or Orthodox traditions?

The question is as simple as the title. I am simply wondering, ‘When is the earliest recorded date of this tradition?’
8
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1answer
101 views

Earliest case of pointing to heaven as consolation and hope to loved ones

I know of a few early church writings that can be understood as saying we go to heaven when we die. But that is not what I'm asking. Rather, I'm looking for the first known case (post NT) where, in ...
4
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1answer
63 views

What was Calvin's view of capital punishment?

What was John Calvin's position on use of the death penalty? For what offenses did he support its use? Did he support or oppose any particular methods of execution? In what ways did his views change ...
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1answer
178 views

How do Trinitarians explain that the Logos is a person?

This question is inspired by What "Word" is John talking about in John 1:1? He argues that the Logos is an impersonal Word of God which He used to create the world just as our own words are impersonal....
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4answers
324 views

How did the Christian movement distinguish itself from Judaism?

Can anyone explain to me how Christianity distanced itself from Judaism and set itself apart?
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2answers
68 views

How did the Emperor Constantine the Great impact christianity? [closed]

Need help for a school essay, any information you have is appreciated. His impact in the middle ages
4
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2answers
125 views

When and why did the modern literal 6-Day creation theory become popular?

Historically, Creationists tended to fall into two broad categories, those who subscribe to the Day-Age theory (the idea that the days in Genesis 1 represent ages of indeterminate length, not 24 hour ...
18
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2answers
17k views

How did the Crusades affect the Pope's power and authority?

How did the Crusades affect the Pope's power/authority, during and after the Crusades? The Crusades, from Wikipedia The Crusades were a series of religiously sanctioned military campaigns, called ...
6
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1answer
174 views

When was the number of the beast, 666, first identified as referring to Emperor Nero?

The belief that the number of the beast in Revelation, 666, refers to Nero is a common theory now. When was this identification first suggested?
9
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3answers
9k views

Where did the religious symbol of the 'halo' come from?

I once read somewhere that the 'halo' was inherited by Christianity from ancient worshippers of the Sun.  However, although this seems believable I never bothered to verify its historic credibility - ...
3
votes
1answer
70 views

Historically what percentage of the Catholic Church's liturgical function was done in Latin?

I have been doing some research and reading about the history of what a church gathering looked like, prior to the Reformation. One thing I have not been able to find detailed information regarding ...
3
votes
1answer
68 views

Christianity and Usury from a Historical perspective

It is safe to say that the Old Testament prohibits usury? Jesus followed the Law and as a rabbi he would have also prohibited it. It seems that the Church banned usury until roughly the 18th Century. ...
17
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1answer
775 views

Did the Church Fathers advocate celibacy?

What is an overview of the Church Fathers' views on celibacy? Did they see celibacy as a higher or more spiritual calling than marriage? Did they see marriage as incompatible with a spiritual life? ...
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2answers
120 views

Historical evidence for a separate Jewish branch of Christianity?

I've met some non-Hebrew people who have come from a Protestant background, become fed up with their faith, changed churches, etc and now call themselves Messianic Jews. This comes with some claims of ...
7
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1answer
152 views

Is there any evidence in the Roman catacombs that the Early Church had a devotion to the Virgin Mary?

Is there any archeological evidence in the catacombs of Rome that the Early Church had any (particular) devotion to the Virgin Mary? If so, what are the sources that support such a devotion?
3
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3answers
5k views

Which biblical verse was used against Galileo

Which biblical verse was used against Galileo by the Church to punish him for his blasphemy. and which biblical doctrine was erroneously interpreted by Galileo for such a punitive action by the Church?...
4
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1answer
141 views

Where did the idea of the inerrancy of the King James Bible come from?

Many Christians believe that the King James Bible is the only correct translation of the word of God. And they say that all other versions of the Bible are not inerrant. What is the historical origin ...
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2answers
2k views

Why would cold running water be preferred for baptism?

The Didache, or Teaching of the Twelve Apostles (an early Christian text not part of the New Testament) says of baptism (chapter 7): On the subject of baptism, baptise thus: after having taught ...