Why Jews Do Not Accept Jesus as the Messiah
The Messiah is a person who will live up to a series of prophetic expectations and partake of an era marked by particular characteristics. In absence of such being the case, Jesus cannot possibly be the Messiah.
The whole world will worship the One God of Israel. Isaiah 2:11-17, Isaiah 40:5, Zephaniah 3:9
Currently large swaths humanity do not worship the One God of Israel.
Knowledge of God will fill the world. Isaiah 11:9, 45:23, 66:23, Jeremiah 31:33, Zechariah 3:9, 8:23, 14:9,16, Ezekiel 38:23, Psalm 86:9
Note that this is knowledge of God - not simply unsubstantiated faith in God. Even amongst the faithful, such knowledge is rare.
All Israelites will be returned to their homeland Isaiah 11:12, 27:12-13, Ezekiel 11:17, 36:24, Deuteronomy 30:3
Though there are more Jews today living in the Land of Israel than there have been since the exile began nearly 2,000 years ago - there is still a large diaspora consisting of millions of Jews.
The Jewish people will experience eternal joy and gladness. Isaiah 51:11
The Jewish people have been historically subject to a great degree of persecution (the Holocaust, the Inquisition, pogroms, etc.) and while generally our condition has improved, we are still a perpetual target.
Nations will recognize the wrongs they did to Israel. Isaiah 52:13-53:5
While modern Germany as a nation-state does much to repent of its history (i.e. the Holocaust), various states and human institutions with much blood and guilt on their hands, to this day either remain silent, white-wash/cover up history, or in some perverse instances even exult in it.
The peoples of the world will turn to the Jews for spiritual guidance. Zechariah 8:23
While there is today an emerging interest in observance of the Noahide laws (the Torah's universal laws of man), there still has not been an en masse turn towards learned Torah observant Jews for guidance in spiritual matters.
Weapons of war will be destroyed. Ezekiel 39:9
One need only momentarily consider the trillions spent on arms by nations such as the U.S., China and Russia as well as the existence of an immense military industrial complex to realize that this is not the condition we find ourselves in today.
A person’s genealogical/tribal membership are transmitted exclusively through one’s physical father. Numbers 1:18, Jeremiah 33:17
Jesus whose alleged sketchy genealogy is maternal cannot possibly be a verifiable descendent of the tribe of Judah.
The Temple will be rebuilt. Micah 4:1, Ezekiel 40-42, Isaiah 2:2-3, Malachi 3:4, Zechariah 14:20-21,
The Third Temple is not a metaphor, it is not symbolic of a man. There will be an actual physical building where all of the ritualistic components that the Torah commands be implemented, will be administered by Leviim (Levites) and Kohanim (Priests).
World Peace: Isaiah 2:4, 11:6, 60:18 Micah 4:1-4, Hosea 2:20
The list of ongoing military conflicts is too long to list here. One can hardly pick up a newspaper or hear a news report without being informed of the latest battle, bombing, strike, etc.
Christianity claims that Jesus "Fulfilled the law," i.e. the law is abrogated and need not any longer be observed.
Deut. 13:2-7 concerns the "false prophet" - if one arises who attempts to draw the Jewish people away from Torah observance then he is to be identified as such. The Torah's commandments are an eternally binding covenant with the Jews, God is not a whimsical being subject to a willy nilly changing of the rules - "God is not a man, that He should lie; neither the son of man, that He should repent" (Num. 23:19)
All Jews will embrace Torah observance. Ezekiel 37:24, Deuteronomy 30:8-10, Jeremiah 31:32, Ezekiel 11:19-20, 36:26-27.
It is fairly obvious that as the situation stands today, lamentably only a very small percentage of Jews live in observance of the Torah. Secularism has widely been embraced by Jews and some even go so far as deeming such virtuous.
Jesus cannot be a part of God, not him, anybody or anything. Deut 6:4.
The idea of the Messiah actually partaking of divinity is anathema to Torah Judaism. God is ONE. His oneness is inviolable and is not that of a compound unity (like twelve eggs make one dozen, or three divinities make one god).
The law is eternal.
Torah: Genesis 17:9, Exodus 12:14, 12:17, 12:24 12:43, 13:3, 27:21, 28:43, 29:9, 30:21, 31:17, 34:27, Leviticus 3:17, 6:22, 7:34-36, 10:9, 10:15, 16:29, 16:31, 16:34, 17:7, 23:14, 23:21, 23:31, 23:41, 24:3, 26:46, Numbers 10:8, 15:15, 19:10, 19:21, 18:23, 35:29, Deuteronomy 4:40, 5:29, 12:28, 18:5, 28:46, 29:28-29, 32:40
Navi: Joshua 1:8, 2 Kings 17:37, Isaiah 34:17, 40:8, 57:16, Hosea 2:19,
Writings: Daniel 7:18, 1 Chronicles 17:22, 23:13, 2 Chronicles 2:4, Psalms 111:7-8, 119:44, 119:52, 119:142, 119:160, 148:6
...and that there are no references to it ever passing away.
To summarize (H. Melakhim Ch. 11):
In the future, the Messianic king will arise and renew the Davidic dynasty, restoring it to its initial sovereignty. He will build the Temple and gather the dispersed of Israel. Then, in his days, the observance of all the statutes will return to their previous state. We will offer sacrifices, observe the Sabbatical and Jubilee years according to all their particulars as described by the Torah...
If a king will arise from the House of David who diligently contemplates the Torah and observes its mitzvot as prescribed by the Written Law and the Oral Law as David, his ancestor, will compel all of Israel to walk in (the way of the Torah) and rectify the breaches in its observance, and fight the wars of God, we may, with assurance, consider him Moshiah. If he succeeds in the above, builds the Temple in its place, and gathers the dispersed of Israel, he is definitely the Moshiah. He will then improve the entire world, motivating all the nations to serve God together, as Tzephaniah 3:9 states: 'I will transform the peoples to a purer language that they all will call upon the name of God and serve Him with one purpose.' If he did not succeed to this degree or was killed, he surely is not the redeemer promised by the Torah.
The Messiah will basically be a human religious leader and a warrior king born of a young woman. He will not die and come back, rather he will live a mortal life within which he fulfill the prophetic expectations. Bar Kochba (who led the rebellion against Roman occupation), was once considered as a messianic candidate. However, once he died and thus failed to live up to the aforementioned expectations, the Sages effectively shrugged and said "oh well... he wasn't it." To borrow a phrase "The God of the Hebrew Bible sends the messianic king to accomplish his end, not to follow a two-part script in which the hero tragically dies and the words 'to be continued' suddenly appear on the screen."