This response addresses the question from a Reformed perspective, informed by concepts such as monergistic regeneration and sola gratia.
The Westminster Assembly, in the Confession (quoted below), taught that the elect were chosen by God "before the foundations of the earth."
Regarding your question as to God's choice of the elect & the sins of the parents, I'm tempted to simply say, "No -- God doesn't/didn't choose the elect depending on any parents' sin, or the sin of anyone at all, for that matter." (Bear in mind the doctrinal framework that is being used for this response, as noted above).
But, then, we don't actually know how God chose the elect.* All of the references I've ever read have been similar to what was provided by the Westminster Assembly: that God made his decision of who to elect "according to His eternal and immutable purpose, and the secret counsel and good pleasure of His will" (WCF 3.5).
But then, again, when it comes to the idea of choosing the elect based on parents' righteousness or sinfulness, we have verses such as the following:
- God is not, nor has he ever been a "respecter of persons." That is to say, he's not impressed, and he doesn't "play favorites." (Rom 2:11, Acts 10:34, etc.).
- Everyone is guilty in his sight (Rom 3:23), and all of our righteousness is like "filthy rags" (Isa 63); even the angels aren't good enough (Job 4:18), and rightfully so, because God is surpassingly holy, so much so that sin cannot even enter his sight (Habakkuk 1:13 & many more).
(I was thinking of working in an Ezekiel 18 reference, but that's a complex chapter, especially when one tries to reconcile it with Exodus 20, the doctrine of original sin, etc.).
So, before this response becomes more disjointed, I think I'm simply going to segue to the Westminster Confession with the quote that follows. It may help to get further research started.
* Note: Several groups throughout history have offered variations on the idea that God elected the people that he "foreknew" would choose him. And that interpretation, and the associated verse from Paul, has been at the heart of disputes for centuries. Many groups still believe that interpretation, and many don't; the Reformed doctrines are in the latter camp.
According to the Westminster Confession of Faith, chapter three, article five:
Those of mankind that are predestinated unto life, God, before the foundation of the world was laid, according to His eternal and immutable purpose, and the secret counsel and good pleasure of His will, has chosen, in Christ, unto everlasting glory,(9) out of His mere free grace and love, without any foresight of faith, or good works, or perseverance in either of them, or any other thing in the creature, as conditions, or causes moving Him thereunto;(10) and all to the praise of His glorious grace.(11) (emphasis added)
Here are the scripture proofs, referenced in the original:
- Ephesians 1:4, "According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love"
- Ephesians 1:9, "Having made known unto us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he hath purposed in himself"
- Ephesians 1:11, "In whom also we have obtained an inheritance, being predestinated according to the purpose of him who worketh all things after the counsel of his own will."
- Romans 8:30, "Moreover whom he did predestinate, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified."
- 2 Timothy 1:9, "Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began."
- 1 Thessalonians 5:9, "For God hath not appointed us to wrath, but to obtain salvation by our Lord Jesus Christ."
- Romans 9:11, "(For the children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of him that calleth;)"
- Romans 9:13, "As it is written, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated."
- Romans 9:16, "So then it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy."
- Ephesians 1:4, "According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love."
- Ephesians 1:9, "Having made known unto us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he hath purposed in himself."
- Ephesians 1:6, "To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved."
- Ephesians 1:12, "That we should be to the praise of his glory, who first trusted in Christ."