I read this as a challenge and not as a bet
Evil has challenged Good
Please see: What should be done with a question based on a false premise? - duplicate
This answer with its references does not approach this topic as 'How do Christians reconcile God's bet with Satan with a God of love?' but as the answer and the references approach it. That is the classic Christian approach to the topic. It is precisely this way of thinking, i.e., that God made a bet with Satan, that leads to more complications in the understanding of God. With this view, God seemed to the OP as capricious.
It is not as if God approached Satan and says, 'Let's bet ...'
Plain reading of the text shows that God points to Satan that there isn't anyone as righteous as Job is in all the earth and Satan responds that he would not be righteous if God had not surrounded him with favor. This is more challenge than bet. God knows the genuine and true love that Job has for him. At the end of the book what is known to God is now revealed to all. Herein is a mystery: that the good man continues to be surrounded with God's favor even amidst his misfortune and his sickness. If God had not been with Job, he would not have persevered.
Evil has challenged Good. With this view, we are still faced with why a Good and almighty God can permit evil to exist let alone allow evil to challenge the Good that it cannot defeat, and knows it cannot defeat. Herein is the mystery that cannot be divorced from any understanding of the Book of Job.
From the above, it is seen that the problem of evil and it besetting the good man, is central to the book of Job
I am also reminded of another mystery of God that prompt people ask why God would 'test' Abraham (via enjoining him to obedience) when he knew him and then go on to say:
12 He said, “Do not lay your hand on the lad or do anything to him;
for now I know that you fear God, seeing you have not withheld your son, your only son, from me.”
Presenting the classic Christian approach to the Book of Job
The Introduction to the Book of Job in the Jerusalem Bible Popular Edition has:
The main character, Job, is a famous figure from ancient history,
traditionally regarded as a model of virtue; he is used by the
author to exemplify the problem of the good man who is punished by
misfortune and sickness.
The questions raised in the book of Job
(Excerpts from A Guide to the Bible | Antonio Fuentes)
The question of a why a bet or even that there is a bet is not presented
The book does not answer the initial question posed; indeed no answer is forthcoming
until almost the era of the New Testament. According to Vaccari it does advance to the position of realizing that God has wisely but mysteriously disposed that sometimes even the just are made to suffer despite their innocence. However, God will eventually reward their
virtue. The problem posed by Job is, basically, what is the origin and purpose of suffering?
Job's question remains unanswered: he does not discover the reason why innocent people suffer. The furthest he gets is to realize that suffering is part of God's plan; that it has to be accepted as long as it lasts; and that God does not abandon the sufferer. In this
connection it raises other basic points which later revelation - especially that of the New Testament - will be more specific about:
a) suffering tests the genuineness of a person's virtue;
b) it protects him from pride and makes him more humble;
c) when suffering comes a person's way he should abandon himself completely into God's hands.
The entire book opens up a new perspective - that of the reward which awaits, in heaven, those who do God's will on earth. Job's suffering, the suffering of a just man who bears it patiently and continues to seek mercy and forgiveness, acquires its fullest meaning in the New Testament. Thus, this text of St. Paul provides an answer to Job's complaints:
I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worth
comparing with the glory that is to be revealed to us. [cf. Rom 8:18 (RSVCE).].
In other words, no matter how much we may suffer on earth, it is nothing compared with the vision of God which awaits us in heaven. Job did not realize that the just man does not attain fulfillment through possession of material things, and never attains it completely in this life. He also knew nothing about what happens to souls after they leave the body. Happiness and immortality are totally connected to one another; but it took human reason centuries to discover this. [...]
In the New Testament, the good man remains faithful even in the face of death, and in so doing and by their LORD, definitively conquering Satan.
Prior to the section above, the guide states:
There is a happy ending and the moral is quite clear, even if Job does not grasp it. But he does realize now that there is no reason why God should have to account to anyone for what he does: man cannot grasp the mysterious ways of providence. in permitting the innocent to suffer and even to die and in not punishing the evildoer during their lifetime, God has his reasons, even if man cannot grasp them.
Divine Revelation and Church Teaching tells us that the types in the Old point ultimately to the Messiah, Jesus Christ the Son of God, God's suffering servant, God himself.
Someone once couldn't have put it better when they said, 'God himself took his own punishment.'
With this, we are reduced to silence.
Answering OP's comment to my answer I don't know why people see Job and think my question is about the suffering of the righteous without actually reading it. Even after I removed that weird edit someone who gave the wrong answer made, this still persists.
Because classic Christian approach to the book of Job is that it exemplifies the problem of the good man who is punished by misfortune and sickness.