So, if I understand you correctly, your question could be alternately summarized as "Does the Bible offer explanations for why certain things happen to certain people?", which is related to (but different from) the age-old question "Why does God let bad things happen to good people?"
To my knowledge, there isn't much (if any) canon scripture that directly addresses this question. Much of the Bible talks about God having a will and a plan, and that all things, whether we perceive them as good or bad, are used to this purpose.
For example, consider the first few verses of John 9:
9 1 As he passed by, he saw a man blind from birth. 2 And his disciples asked him, “Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents, that he was born blind?” 3 Jesus answered, “It was not that this man sinned, or his parents, but that the works of God might be displayed in him. 4 We must work the works of him who sent me while it is day; night is coming, when no one can work. 5 As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world.”
What Jesus said here seems to reject the idea that God uses past sins as a method for deciding what will happen to us in the present. There is certainly a causal relationship with sin, in that all actions have consequences, but nothing Jesus says here suggests that our experiences in life are ordained as consequences.
Also of potential relevance is the classic scripture from 1 Corinthians 13:4-7, which describes love.
4 Love is patient and kind; love does not envy or boast; it is not arrogant 5 or rude. It does not insist on its own way; it is not irritable or resentful; 6 it does not rejoice at wrongdoing, but rejoices with the truth. 7 Love bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things.
Combined with 1 John 4:8:
Whoever does not love does not know God, because God is love.
We can quite reasonably apply every adjective and trait from Corinthians to our picture of God. The biggest piece that stands out here is that God is patient and he is not resentful. This suggests that, whatever His intentions for us, and whatever the consequences for being sinful and far from God in the bigger picture, the consequences of sin are not of the form "You did X, therefore I will make Y happen to punish you."