THE BIBLICAL BASIS FOR THE TRINITY
The doctrine of the Trinity is rooted in both the Old Testament Scriptures and the New Testament Scriptures.It is first hidden in the Old Covenant and was revealed in the New Testament.
Deuteronomy 29:29 (NIV)
The secret things belong to the LORD our God, but the things revealed
belong to us and to our children forever, that we may follow all the
words of this law.
Proverbs 25:2 (NIV)
It is the glory of God to conceal a matter; to search out a matter is
the glory of kings.
Mark 4:22 ( NIV)
For whatever is hidden is meant to be disclosed, and whatever is
concealed is meant to be brought out into the open.
The Trinity is concealed in the Old Testament in both the actions and attributes of God whose name is Y-H-W-H as well as by his yet to be revealed equal fellows:
26 Then God said, “Let us make mankind in our image, in our
likeness, so that they may rule over the fish in the sea and the
birds in the sky, over the livestock and all the wild animals,[a] and
over all the creatures that move along the ground.”
27 So God created mankind in his own image,
in the image of God he created them;
male and female he created them.
Genesis 11:7 (NIV)
Come, let us go down and confuse their language so they will not understand each other."
Isaiah 6:8 (NIV)
8 Then I heard the voice of the Lord saying, “Whom shall I send? And
who will go for us?”
And I said, “Here am I. Send me!”
Proverbs 30:4 (NIV)
Who has gone up to heaven and come down? Whose hands have gathered up
the wind? Who has wrapped up the waters in a cloak? Who has
established all the ends of the earth? What is his name, and what is
the name of his son? Surely you know!
Daniel 7:9-13 (NIV)
9 “As I looked,
“thrones were set in place,
and the Ancient of Days took his seat. His clothing was as white as snow;
the hair of his head was white like wool. His throne was flaming with fire,
and its wheels were all ablaze. 10 A river of fire was flowing,
coming out from before him. Thousands upon thousands attended him;
ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him. The court was seated,
and the books were opened. 11 “Then I continued to watch because of the boastful words the horn was speaking. I kept looking until the
beast was slain and its body destroyed and thrown into the blazing
fire. 12 (The other beasts had been stripped of their authority, but
were allowed to live for a period of time.)
13 “In my vision at night I looked, and there before me was one like
a son of man,[a] coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached
the Ancient of Days and was led into his presence.
Daniel 7:22 (NIV)
until the Ancient of Days came and pronounced judgment in favor of
the holy people of the Most High, and the time came when they
possessed the kingdom.
Psalm 110:3 (DRB)
With thee is the principality in the day of thy strength: in the
brightness of the saints: from the womb before the day star I begot
7 The Lord hath said to me: Thou art my son, this day have I
Proverbs 8:25 ( NetBible)
before the mountains were set in place--before the hills--I was born,
The Trinity is revealed in the New Testament by showing the actions and attributes of the Messsiah and the Holy Spirit as they work together with God the Father in both creation and salvation.
John 10:28-30 (NIV)
28 I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish; no one
will snatch them out of my hand. 29 My Father, who has given them
to me, is greater than all; no one can snatch them out of my
Father’s hand. 30 I and the Father are one.”
Matthew 28:19 (NIV)
19 Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in
the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,
1 Corinthians 13:14 (NIV)
May the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God,
and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all.
1 Corinthians 8:6 (NIV)
yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom all things
came and for whom we live; and there is but one Lord, Jesus
Christ, through whom all things came and through whom we live.
1 Corinthians 12:4-11 (NIV)
4There are different kinds of gifts, but the same Spirit
distributes them. 5There are different kinds of service, but the
same Lord. 6There are different kinds of working, but in all of them and in everyone it is the same God at work. 7Now to each one
the manifestation of the Spirit is given for the common good. 8To one
there is given through the Spirit a message of wisdom, to another a
message of knowledge by means of the same Spirit, 9to another faith by
the same Spirit, to another gifts of healing by that one Spirit,
10to another miraculous powers, to another prophecy, to another
distinguishing between spirits, to another speaking in different kinds
of tongues,a and to still another the interpretation of tongues.b
11All these are the work of one and the same Spirit, and he
distributes them to each one, just as he determines.
1 Peter 1:2 (NIV)
2 who have been chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the
Father, through the sanctifying work of the Spirit, to be
obedient to Jesus Christ and sprinkled with his blood:
FROM JEWSISH MONOTHEISM TO CHRISTIAN MONOTHEISM
The belief that there's only one God is preserved in the Christian faith.
Romans 3:29-30 ( NIV)
29 Or is God the God of Jews only? Is he not the God of Gentiles too?
Yes, of Gentiles too, 30 since there is only one God, who will
justify the circumcised by faith and the uncircumcised through that
James 2:19 (NIV)
19 You believe that there is one God. Good! Even the demons
believe that—and shudder.
But this oneness is not in terms of person but rather, it is a oneness in terms of nature.The crux of the matter is that it is revealed that there exists three persons in one Godhead (i.e. the Trinity) according to the whole Scriptural data that we have.
Person is a rational individual who has the following: mind(intellect), volition ( will) and passion ( emotion).
Nature is something inherently belongs to someone such as abilities and attributes.
ONE NAME EQUALS ONE NATURE
God created male and female and he gave them one name:
Genesis 5:2 (ASV)
male and female created he them, and blessed them,
and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created.
The Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit have one name:
Matthew 28:19 (ASV)
Go ye therefore, and make disciples of all the
nations, baptizing them into the name of the Father and of the Son and
of the Holy Spirit:
Jesus came in order to reveal God in all His fullness ( John 1:18, Colossians 1:19). He revealed that God is Triune (Matthew 28:19).
The Father's one and only name is Yahweh ( Exodus 6:4). Both the Son and the Holy Spirit have the same name of the Father. These three are one in name ( Matthew 28:19).
The name of God is expressive of His eternal nature ( Exodus 3:14). Therefore, the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit are of same eternal nature because they are of same name.
ONE NATURE EQUALS ONE GOD
The three persons should have a nature related to each other. In other words, the nature of the Trinity should be a unity of nature because if they have each their own separate nature then they would not be one God but three gods.
Also, we would call the man and the woman, who have the same name Adam, as humans due to their human nature (human genome) which is divisible but we should not call the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit , who have the same name Yahweh, as gods because their Godhead is spiritual (i.e. immaterial, indivisible).
John 4:24 (NIV)
24 God is spirit, and his worshipers must worship in the Spirit
and in truth.”
FALSE DEITIES VERSUS THE TRUE GOD
1 Corinthians 8:4-6(NASB)
4 Therefore concerning the eating of things sacrificed to idols, we
know that there is no such thing as an idol in the world, and that
there is no God but one. 5 For even if there are so-called gods
whether in heaven or on earth, as indeed there are many gods and many
lords, 6 yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom are
all things and we exist for Him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, by whom
are all things, and we exist through Him.
Paul draws a contrast between the false gods and the Father and the Son.
The focus of 1 Corinthians 8 is monotheism (God is only one) and the specific way it is taught is by evincing function exclusive to the Deity as well as by the divine title/name.
None of the idols were real.
None of the unreal gods created anything through the unreal lords.
Only the one God created all things through the one Lord.
The context of the text shows that the many gods and many lord (whether in heaven or on earth) are the idols in the world that are unreal.
Galatians 4:8 specifically stated the reason why these gods are unreal and that is because these gods are not gods by nature.
Galatians 4:8 (NASB) 8 However at that time, when you did not know
God, you were slaves to those which by nature are no gods.
He who is true God is God by nature.The Scriptures tell us that there are only three persons who have the same Godhead: the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit.
INHERENT ONTOLOGICAL EQUALITY
To be ontologically equal with someone is to be of same nature nature with that someone. The Father and the Son have the same nature (i.e. ontologically equal).
Philippians 2:6 (NIV)
Who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God
something to be used to his own advantage;
VOLITIONAL FUNCTIONAL SUBORDINATION
To be volition-ally functionally subordinate with someone is to be submissive with that someone by free choice. The Son freely chose to submit to the Father in the redemptive plan.
Philippians 2:7 (NASB)
but emptied Himself, taking the form of a bond-servant, and being
made in the likeness of men.
GOD THE SON: JESUS CHRIST
Jesus is called God ( John 1:1, 18, 10:33, 20:28 ;Acts 20:28 ; Titus 3:15; Hebrews 1:8 , 2 Peter 1:1; 1 John 5:20).
Jesus is called God because he is of same nature with the Father ( John 1:1, 8:42 ; 10:28-38 ; Hebrews 1:3).
Jesus is of same nature with the Father because he is the only begotten of the Father ( Psalm 45:1 LXX ; Psalm 110:3 LXX ,John 1:1, 14, 18, 3:16 ; 1 John 5:18).
GOD THE HOLY SPIRIT: THE SPIRIT OF THE FATHER AND THE SON
We can know that the Holy Spirit is God both from his attributes (nature) and actions (function) which are inseparable in the relationship he has with the Father and the Son.In other words, we can know that the Holy Spirit is God within the doctrine known as Trinity.
The Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit ( Greek: Pneuma ” wind, breath, spirit”; Hagios ”Holy, set apart”).
The title Holy Spirit belongs to the third person in the Triune God ( Matthew 28:19).
Matthew 28:19 (NIV)
Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the
name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,
The Holy Spirit is the one Spirit of both the Father and the Son.
John 15:26 (NASB)
When the Helper comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, that
is the Spirit of truth who proceeds from the Father, He will testify
Galatians 4:6 (NASB)
Because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into
our hearts, crying, "Abba! Father!"
The Holy Spirit is a Person
The HS is a person based on the very definition of “Person” as a rational individual who has the following: mind(intellect), volition ( will) and passion ( emotion).
The Holy Spirit has a mind (Romans 8:27).
The Holy Spirit has a will ( 1 Corinthians 12:11).
The Holy Spirit has an emotion ( loves, Romans 15:30; grieves, Ephesians 4:30).
The Functions of the Holy Spirit show that He is a Person
The name of the Holy Spirit shows that He is a person.
The name of the Holy Spirit is Yahweh (2 Samuel 23:2-3; Matthew 28:19).
Premise 1: Yahweh is a person.
Premise 2: The Holy Spirit is Yahweh.
Conclusion: Ergo, the Holy Spirit is a person.
Other biblical proofs that the Holy Spirit is a person:
Can be blasphemed - Matthew 12:39
Contrasted with evil spirits - Mark 3:22-23; Matthew 12:32; 1 Timothy 4:1; 1 John 3:24-4. If "unholy or evil spirits" are persons, then the Holy Spirit is a person.
In Revelation 22:17, both The Spirit and the Bride say "come." This verse clearly equates the two as persons who uttered a same invitation.
The Holy Spirit is God
The Holy Spirit is identified as ‘God’ in Acts 5:1-10 , John 3:5-8 and 1 Corinthians 3:16.He is identified as 'Yahweh'(Jehovah) in 2 Samuel 23:2-3 and Matthew 28:19.
The Holy Spirit is God by nature. He has all the complete divine nature:
Eternality ( Hebrews 9:14)
Omniscience ( 1 Corinthians 2:10).
Omnipotence ( Jb 33:4, Psalm 33:6).
Omnipresence ( Psalm 139:7-8)