Why did Joseph Smith condone, or perhaps even encourage polygamy? What scriptures, if any, support this practice?
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There was polygamy, or plural wives, in the Old Testament.
Starting with the (NRSV) Bible.
In the Book of Mormon, the book of Jacob, Jacob explains to the Nephites how God sees plural wives. (Jacob 2:27-30)
So God has to command plural marriage by revelation.
Unfortunately for Joseph Smith, God revealed that he wanted all things restored, including polygamy. This revelation was recorded 12 July 1843, and is known in the Doctrine and Covenants as revelation 132.
Poor Joseph. God commanded him to restore all things. He felt obliged to marry 34 other women.
According to the LDS Church, of which Joseph Smith was the founder, "Latter-day Saints do not understand all of God’s purposes for instituting, through His prophets, the practice of plural marriage during the 19th century. The Book of Mormon identifies one reason for God to command it: to increase the number of children born in the gospel covenant in order to “raise up seed unto [the Lord]” (Jacob 2:30)." Plural Marriage and Families in Early Utah - LDS.org