@Caleb pointed out that many church traditions use the Revised Common Lectionary (RCL) as a guide. It's a three year cycle of readings. In most seasons of the church year, there's a reading from the Hebrew Bible, a Psalm, a reading from the epistles of the New Testament, and a Gospel reading appointed for each week. In the time between Easter and Pentecost (seven weeks later) the Revised Common Lectionary offers a reading from the New Testament in place of the Hebrew Bible reading.
This follows a Jewish tradition of reading through the entire Torah (Gen, Ex, Lev, Num, Deut) on either a one-year or three year cycle. But the Jews read the whole Torah in that time, whereas the RCL chooses (dare I say "cherrypicks?") the passages.
The Roman Catholic Church has an appointed set of readings very similar to the RCL. Many Reformation-heritage churches also use it, as do Orthodox churches. In fact, there's a (fading) tradition of naming Sundays after the Gospel reading, such as Good Shepherd Sunday and Prodigal Son Sunday.
The RCL is not mandatory in the Lutheran and Episcopal traditions I am familiar with; the preacher may choose other scripture to read, usually when the preaching is following a multi-week theme.
But most Episcopal and Lutheran preachers follow the RCL.
Somebody else will need to answer for other traditions.