Jon Ericson has given a good summary of the development of the doctrine of resurrection. I'm going to take a different angle and look at the level of detail about Jesus' resurrection.
New Testament Chronology
You can find a reasonable chronology of New Testament writings, as well as other early Christian writings, at the aptly named Early Christian Writings website. The dates of each document are given in ranges, and are ordered by the earliest date suggested for each document.
A few of these are highly speculative. For example, the "Lost Sayings Gospel Q" is thought by many scholars to be a written source used by Matthew and Luke, but no copies of such a gospel exist, and no ancient Christians ever mentioned it.
Likewise, many scholars believe there was an early "Passion Narrative" written prior to the first gospel. If so, we can only guess what details might have been in it, because again no copies exist. The early Christians did, however, mention details about Jesus' last days, even before the gospels were written. But whether they got these details from a written document or from oral tradition, we can't really know.
Jon's answer mentions Paul's teaching about the resurrection in 1 Corinthians, one of his earlier letters. This shows the doctrine of the resurrection was fleshed out very early in the development of Christianity.
The Resurrection Story
But your question asked about the story of the resurrection, and that's something different. While Paul's letters mention scattered details about the resurrection, they do not contain a narrative about it. For that, we must look to the gospels.
The first gospel to be written, most scholars agree, was Mark. Mark's account of the resurrection is somewhat sparse. Mary Magdalene goes to Jesus' tomb with two other women with burial spices. When the women arrive at the tomb, they find the stone rolled away and the body missing. A "young man" tells them that Jesus has risen and will meet the disciples in Galilee. The women flee the tomb in fear. That's the end of Mark's gospel. (The earliest and most reliable copies of this gospel do not contain any verses beyond 16:8.)
The second gospel written was Matthew. Again, the women go to the tomb with burial spices. According to Matthew, there is an earthquake as an angel descends and rolls the stone aside. The angel tells the women that Jesus has risen, and will meet his disciples in Galilee. As the women turn around to go tell the disciples they see Jesus himself, and worship him.
In Galilee Jesus tells his disciples to go into all the world and make disciples themselves.
So you can already see a greater level of detail going from Mark's account to Matthew's.
The third gospel written was Luke. Again the women go to the tomb and find the stone rolled away and the body missing. Here they see two men who tell them he is risen. The women go back and tell the disciples.
The disciples don't believe it. Peter goes to the tomb himself to verify the women's story, and sees the empty burial clothes.
In one sense, this is less "supernatural" than Matthew's account; there is no angel, and no appearance of Jesus to the women.
But Luke's story doesn't end there. Later the same day, two disciples (but apparently not two of the 12) are walking from Jerusalem to the town of Emmaus when Jesus appears and walks with them. They don't recognize him. He explains to them "the things about himself in all the scriptures". They invite him into their home, he blesses their bread, and they realize who he is. Then he vanishes.
So the two go back to Jerusalem to tell the 12 (well, 11 now), and while they are relating their story, Jesus appears again. He eats a fish, then teaches them about himself.
He leads them to the nearby town of Bethany, where he offers a final blessing then ascends to heaven.
So although Luke's account of the empty tomb is perhaps more down to earth than Matthew's, the subsequent appearances give this gospel a much more detailed account of the resurrection.
The last gospel to be written was John. Again we have the familiar story of the women going to the tomb and finding the stone removed. In this account, Mary tells Peter and John that Jesus' body has been taken from the tomb. The two disciples run to the tomb, enter, and see the burial clothes.
Mary, however, remains outside the tomb and weeps. She is met by two angels who ask her why she is weeping. She tells them Jesus' body has been taken and she doesn't know where to find it. She turns around and sees Jesus himself but does not recognize him. She asks him if he knows where the body has been moved to. He calls her name, "Mary!" She replies, "Teacher!" and goes to tell the disciples that she has seen Jesus.
That evening Jesus appears inside a locked room where the disciples have hidden (except for Thomas who is not present). When they later tell Thomas they have seen Jesus, Thomas doesn't believe them. He insists that he won't believe unless he can see and touch the scars on Jesus' body.
So a week later, Jesus appears again and gives Thomas the opportunity to do just that. Thomas believes and worships him.
Some time later, seven of the disciples are fishing. They spend much of the night on the lake but do not catch anything. About daybreak Jesus shows up on the lake shore, and tells them the fishing is better on the other side of the boat. They follow his suggestion and catch 153 fish. Peter recognizes Jesus, gets out of the boat, and goes to him.
Jesus has a conversation with Peter that is apparently meant to counter Peter's three denials of Jesus on the night Jesus was arrested. Three times Jesus asks, "Do you love me?" Three times Peter replies, "Yes." In response, Jesus gives Peter the instructions, "Feed my lambs," then, "Tend my sheep," and finally, "Feed my sheep."
Here the account of the empty tomb contains much more detail than in the first three gospels, and the number of subsequent appearances of Jesus in John's gospel equals the total from the first three gospels.
While I wouldn't say the resurrection story gets more important or more "supernatural" from gospel to gospel, it certainly gets more detailed in the later gospels.