Referencing the gospel accounts of Christ's actions and teachings, how does He clearly define a Christian?
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Jesus didn't, because the word "Christian" only appeared much later. Acts 11:26c:
To the extent that "being Christian" means following Christ in imitation of Him, Christ gives the answer in Matthew 16:24: " Then Jesus said to his disciples: If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me."
In commentary on this verse Saints Chrysostom, Euthymius, and Theophylactus, show that free will is confirmed by these words:
Jesus generally talks about His Kingdom when He talks about the church. But He does have things to say about who belongs among His followers:
He sets the bar of membership much lower than any church I know (including my own):
But we can't forget the immediate context:
If we want to follow Him, be imitators of Christ, or Christians (literally "little Christs"), we need to follow Him where ever He goes: even to death. We also believe we can follow Him in Resurrection.