I have heard that Jesus fulfills the three Jewish "offices" of Prophet, Priest, and King. What is significant about this, and how specifically does or did Jesus fulfill those offices?
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Prophet: In the old testament a prophet was typically one that communed with God to get revelation for the Israelites and was head of the 'church.' I.E. Moses
Since Christ was head of the church while he was here on earth and received all the revelation from God during that time and passed it on to the 12 apostles he then would have the title of prophet.
King: One of the reasons that Christ was actually rejected by the Jews was because the Messiah of the old testament was supposed to be
Referring to the fact that Jesus through His mother Marry and His adopted father Joseph He is descended from the King David. The Jews of course were looking for a mighty descendant of David to overthrow the Roman rule of the time.
Priest: Priest has a lot of meanings depending on the denomination, but they often have duties to minister unto the members of a church. If you look at the life of Christ then it is easy to see that He fits this definition of a Priest.
Yes Jesus did fulfill the offices of Prophet, Priest, and King. It is important because it gives us a look on how he calls us to live out our lives. In a Priestly fashion we offer everything we do to God, Jesus' example is the Eucharist. In a Prophetic fashion we are called to proclaim God's good news to all the world in word and in our actions, one of Jesus' examples was preaching to the children. In a Kingly fashion we are called to master our passions, in the aspect that we are called to use our gifts and our talents for God and we are disgracing him by not using what he gave us, unfortunately I can't think of an example from Jesus at the moment.
..hope this helps!Sure am glad I took good notes in my Theology class for once!