Support for central authority and organization is not strongly evident in the gospels, possibly because they were written with the purpose of telling the story of Christ and not the purpose of establishing the church. We do see a lot of evidence of a church organization in the book of Acts. As the article that DJClayworth linked to points out, Paul's later epistles are laden with references to church organization because organizing the church was an important concern of his.
Here are three NT passages that can be interpreted to support church authority and organization:
Luke 6:13 (KJV)
13 And when it was day, he called unto him his disciples: and of them he chose twelve, whom also he named apostles;
Ephesians 2:19-22 (KJV)
19 Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellowcitizens with the saints, and of the household of God;
20 And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone;
Acts 14:23 (KJV)
23 And when they had ordained them elders in every church, and had prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord, on whom they believed.
A central church authority is a necessary byproduct of believing that certain ordinances are necessary for salvation. Ordinances often have rules for who can be administered to as well as how it must be done. Church authority is a very orderly and efficient way to regulate those requirements. The Old Testament is an excellent example of this. Notice that churches who put more emphasis on ordinances also have more structure (Catholic, Orthodox, and LDS churches, as well as the Jewish faith). And it's not just a good way to regulate the ordinances, but also a good way to regulate doctrine.
For more on the Catholic views, I would read the article referenced earlier by DJClayworth from the Catholic Encyclopedia. Its dense, but its thorough.
The LDS Church has lists of scriptures that they believe support church authority and organization. As expected, some references are from the Book of Mormon and other extra-biblical canon.