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Obviously they refer to the same human being, however what are some beliefs that Christians hold about Jesus that Muslims do not share. I ask this question in sort of an apologetic spirit so that I can explain it to others.

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Why not take a look at the same question from the Muslim perspective, which is actually very informative: How does Muslim teaching on the person of Jesus differ from that of Christian teaching? –  Monkieboy Oct 17 '12 at 10:37
    
Quran does have some verses pointimg towards the claim of Christian description of Jesus though these verses are interprated on safer side by islamic scholars to avoid clash with their stated historical positions. Seethis question with comments on Islam SE. –  Seek forgiveness Oct 17 '12 at 11:55
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5 Answers

up vote 31 down vote accepted

The simplest place to start is that Muslims view Jesus as a man with a special role as prophet. Christians view him as God himself in the flesh (incarnate). To Muslims, the idea that God had a son is blasphemy. Even though Christians view him as one in the same being (as a person in the Trinity) and thus still hold the idea of God being one, that concept does not compute in the Islamic faith.

Interestingly there is a reference in the Qur'an to Jesus being considered sinless, but the ramifications of this idea are not developed.

Surah 19:19 (Pickthall)
He said: I am only a messenger of thy Lord, that I may bestow on thee a faultless son.

Besides that detail, the rest of the story follows relatively consistently from the key identity issue of being God incarnate or just a man. In Islam, as just a prophet, Jesus plays no role in salvation and it is not accepted that he rose from the dead. Views on whether he was actually crucified vary, but the resurrection is never recognized.

In Christianity, Jesus role is not just that of a prophet (1 Peter 2:22), but also those of a priest and king -- The King: Lord of all creation and Lord of salvation.

Colossians 1:15-20 (ESV)
15 He is the image of jthe invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. 16 For by him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities—all things were created through him and for him. 17 And he is before all things, and in him all things hold together. 18 And he is the head of the body, the church. He is sthe beginning, the firstborn from the dead, that in everything he might be preeminent. 19 For in him all the fullness of God was pleased to dwell, 20 and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether on earth or in heaven, making peace by the blood of his cross.

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Just wanted to mention that "He" in verse 19:19 of the Quran refers to Gabriel who was talking with Mary. –  Omtara Dec 25 '11 at 5:47
    
The Quran also has a good quote about how God is Begotten by No One and Begat No One. That idea completely eliminates the idea of a Son of God, or ever being God's Children, vs being his Creations. I'm not sure of which Sura that's part of. It actually may be one of the short ones. –  meltdownmonk Jan 30 at 23:33
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Some opinions of Islam on Jesus which is possibly similar to christian belief-

  • Born from a virgin mother.
  • Was a true prophet, sent to the children of israel.
  • Was the promised messiah/christ the children of Israel were waiting for.
  • Preached true word of one God, forbade idolatry.
  • Was able to talk from the first day of his life and performed other miracles.
  • Came with new ruling for children of Israel from God, including some exemption of previous rules.
  • Will come again on earth to fight the false messiah/anti christ.
  • Will rule the world as a king with justice (after Mahdi).

Some differing points may be-

  • Being Son of God
  • Being part of God
  • Removing all the sins from the believers
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Why not take a look at the same question from the Muslim perspective, which is actually very informative:

http://islam.stackexchange.com/questions/357/how-does-muslim-teaching-on-the-person-of-jesus-differ-from-that-of-christian-te/361#comment8489_361

UPDATE:

Muslims believe Jesus (Isa Masih):

  • is the Word of God, Spirit of God and other similar titles that are present in Christianity also, but they believe these attribute are not necessarily unique to Jesus
  • was one of the 5 great prophets (Noah, Abraham, Moses, JESUS and Muhammad)
  • is a creation of God not creator and certainly not a son of God (as opposed to the Christian belief)
  • was the messiah but does not save through dying on the cross
  • will come again, same as Christians but for a different purpose and in a different way
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Islam accepts Jesus as a prophet. A man of God so to speak. They also believe he was born of a virgin and did miracles, but take the Gnostic Gospels take on his crucifixion and somehow think that it was just a big hoax and some even think that it was Judas who died on the cross.

It is one of the greatest ironies of Islam that the one thing they differ from Christians about Jesus is the thing that is most uncontroversial about him. That he died on the cross. It is the one thing that almost all of the New Testament scholars believe is true.

Even the non Christian ones like Marcus Borg and John Dominic Crossan of the Jesus seminar agree with Christianity on this point.

Source 1, Source 2

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-1 I don't understand the last sentence of your answer. "Even radial atheist ones like Marcus Borg..."? Are you saying these people are atheists? They clearly are not. Marcus Borg describes himself as a panentheist. Please either clarify the final sentence, or if you are claiming these people are atheists, then provide a reference, or remove the claim. –  Flimzy Sep 15 '11 at 22:57
    
I edited it. Happy? –  Neil Meyer Sep 22 '11 at 9:41
    
Thank you for the update. Although Marcus Borg considers himself a Christian, too... his wife is even an Episcopalian Priest. –  Flimzy Sep 22 '11 at 20:13
    
Crucifixion of Jesus is mentioned by some non-Christian Antiquity authors. See wikipedia on Crucifixion of Jesus. –  Pavel Nov 18 '12 at 15:35
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Here are the differences:

Christianity

  1. Jesus is God.
  2. Jesus died and rose again to save the world from all their sins.
  3. Jesus is the way to eternity in heaven.

Islam

  1. Jesus is not God, he was just a good prophet.
  2. Jesus did not rise again.
    a. He was never crucified, nor would God ever let one of his prophets die in such a fashion.
  3. Jesus does not save us. Instead, our works save us.

I hope this answers your question.

Source: The Dark Side of Islam by R. C. Sproul, Abdul Saleeb

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Your answer may be factually correct, but I am somewhat uncomfortable that your source is blatantly and obviously biased. –  TRiG Sep 20 '11 at 19:10
    
It looks biased to me as well but also factually correct. I am dubious about point 2. Muslim believe Jesus did rise but was not crucified. –  Learner Jan 25 '12 at 1:57
    
@Roger Actually, this is correct. Muslims do say that Jesus never died, is still around, and will return to fix all our problems. In response to the biased part, Abdul Saleeb is a Muslim convert, so he knows what he's talking about. –  daviesgeek Jan 25 '12 at 18:21
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@TRiG Abdul Saleeb is a Muslim convert, so he has lived the Muslim life. The book is a contrast of Christianity and Islam from a Christian perspective, but when reading the book, it didn't seem like there was a lean to either side. –  daviesgeek Jan 25 '12 at 18:23
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And, if it doesn't "lean to either side", it exposes the truths of Christianity too? –  TRiG Jun 12 '12 at 3:18
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protected by Caleb Mar 9 '13 at 12:51

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