The problem is what we see as soul has different meanings based on when in history you are looking at it.
For example, the Hebrews didn't see the soul as immortal, as shown here:
"The soul [nephesh] who sins shall die" (Ezekiel 18:4, 20)
So, the soul (word was nephesh) was not immortal.
Then in the first century AD, Philo introduced the immortal soul to the Jews as they interacted more with the Greeks:
The death of a man is the separation of his soul from his body ..."
(The Works of Philo, translated by C.D. Yonge, 1993, p. 37).
So, in Greek the work psuche is translated as soul or life.
Jesus stated that God can destroy the soul (Matt 10:28):
Do not be afraid of those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul.
Rather, be afraid of the One who can destroy both soul and body in
Paul described death as sleep, as shown in this sample:
1 Corinthians 15:51-58
51 Listen, I tell you a mystery: We will not all sleep, but we will all be changed —
52 in a flash, in the twinkling of an eye, at the
last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, the dead will be raised
imperishable, and we will be changed.
53 For the perishable must clothe itself with the imperishable, and the mortal with immortality.
54 When the perishable has been clothed with the imperishable, and the
mortal with immortality, then the saying that is written will come
true: “Death has been swallowed up in victory.”[a]
55 “Where, O death, is your victory? Where, O death, is your sting?”[b]
56 The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law.
57 But thanks be to God! He gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus
58 Therefore, my dear brothers and sisters, stand firm. Let nothing move you. Always give yourselves fully to the work of the
Lord, because you know that your labor in the Lord is not in vain.
1 Thessalonians 4:13-18
13 But we do not want you to be uninformed, brethren, about those who
are asleep, so that you will not grieve as do the rest who have no
hope. 14 For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so God
will bring with Him those who have fallen asleep [a]in Jesus. 15 For
this we say to you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive
[b]and remain until the coming of the Lord, will not precede those who
have fallen asleep. 16 For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven
with a [c]shout, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet
of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. 17 Then we who are
alive [d]and remain will be caught up together with them in the clouds
to meet the Lord in the air, and so we shall always be with the Lord.
18 Therefore comfort one another with these words.
An immortal soul isn't mentioned in the Bible, but immortality is mentioned, such as:
"And this is the will of Him who sent Me, that everyone who sees the
Son and believes in Him may have everlasting life; and I will raise
him up at the last day" (John 6:40).
So, Origen wrote about the immortal soul:
In Origen De Principiis he wrote: "... The soul, having a substance
and life of its own, shall after its departure from the world, be
rewarded according to its deserts, being destined to obtain either an
inheritance of eternal life and blessedness, if its actions shall have
procured this for it, or to be delivered up to eternal fire and
punishments, if the guilt of its crimes shall have brought it down to
this ..." (Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 4, 1995, p. 240).
and the Augustine wrote more on the subject:
In The City of God he wrote that the soul "is therefore called
immortal, because in a sense, it does not cease to live and to feel;
while the body is called mortal because it can be forsaken of all
life, and cannot by itself live at all. The death, then, of the soul,
takes place when God forsakes it, as the death of the body when the
soul forsakes it" (Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 2, 1995, p. 245.)
Thomas Aquinas probably wrote the most on the subject of the soul, and you can read various issues about the soul here: http://www.newadvent.org/summa/1.htm, and starting at Question 75.
In various places the Book of Mormon talks about the immortal soul, and this page is a good reference, as it also shows where the Bible doesn't agree on the immortality of the soul:
38 Therefore if that man arepenteth not, and remaineth and dieth an
enemy to God, the demands of divine bjustice do awaken his immortal
soul to a lively sense of his own cguilt, which doth cause him to
shrink from the dpresence of the Lord, and doth fill his breast with
guilt, and epain, and fanguish, which is like an unquenchable gfire,
whose flame ascendeth up forever and ever.
Due to the complexity, you may want to narrow down the focus of your question, perhaps.