According to the Bible, will those who have heard about Jesus (and, perhaps, even believed that Jesus existed or that he had a special role) and yet have never prayed directly to Him (i.e. never addressed Him in prayer by using the name "Jesus") go to hell?
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There's an old saying (more or less) in Christianity that it's not a religion, but a relationship. There is biblical support for this coming from this verse:
Very simply, it's not just what about is in our hearts; nor is it about what we do; it's about having the relationship with Jesus.
Without prayer, there is no relationship (and can be no relationship). Without prayer, we cannot make ourselves known to God.
Phillipians shows that if we do not pray, our requests won't be presented to God and so he will (as stated in Matthew) not know us.
The Bible tells us of many who were saved prior to the birth of Jesus, so they clearly did not pray to Jesus.
And nowhere does the Bible indicate that the requirements for salvation are different for those who have heard the name of Christ, than for those who haven't.
No; arguably the most famous verse in the Bible tells us:
It would, however, be rather odd to believe in Jesus and never talk to him. But if someone accepts Jesus as their saviour and then dies suddenly without the opportunity to pray, there's no reason to suspect their salvation is in jeopardy.
A very powerful example of someone not needing to pray to Jesus to have salvation and enter the kingdom appears in Luke 23: 41-43. Three men, two criminals and Jesus were crucified on crosses, side-by-side. One of the two criminals said to the other, in reference to Jesus,
41 "And we indeed (are crucified) justly, for we receive the due reward of our deeds; but this Man (Jesus) has done nothing wrong." 42) Then he said to Jesus, "Lord, remember me when You come into Your kingdom." 43) And Jesus said to him, "Assuredly, I say to you, today you will be with Me in Paradise."
The criminal Jesus was speaking to wasn't required to pray to Him to receive this promise.